Leading SaaS providers have sufficiently matured the integration capabilities of their product offerings to a point where it is now reasonable for enterprises to architect multi-vendor, single- and multi-cloud Production platforms, without re-engineering existing cloud-native applications. In previous posts, we have integrated other SaaS products, including as MongoDB Atlas fully-managed MongoDB-as-a-service, ElephantSQL fully-manage PostgreSQL-as-a-service, and CloudAMQP RabbitMQ-as-a-service, into cloud-native applications on Azure, AWS, GCP, and PCF.
In this post, we will build and deploy an existing, Spring Framework, microservice-based, cloud-native API to Google Kubernetes Engine (GKE), replete with Istio 1.0, on Google Cloud Platform (GCP). The API will rely on Confluent Cloud to provide a fully-managed, Kafka-based messaging-as-a-service (MaaS). Similarly, the API will rely on MongoDB Atlas to provide a fully-managed, MongoDB-based Database-as-a-service (DBaaS).
In a previous two-part post, Using Eventual Consistency and Spring for Kafka to Manage a Distributed Data Model: Part 1 and Part 2, we examined the role of Apache Kafka in an event-driven, eventually consistent, distributed system architecture. The system, an online storefront RESTful API simulation, was composed of multiple, Java Spring Boot microservices, each with their own MongoDB database. The microservices used a publish/subscribe model to communicate with each other using Kafka-based messaging. The Spring services were built using the Spring for Apache Kafka and Spring Data MongoDB projects.
Given the use case of placing an order through the Storefront API, we examined the interactions of three microservices, the Accounts, Fulfillment, and Orders service. We examined how the three services used Kafka to communicate state changes to each other, in a fully-decoupled manner.
The Storefront API’s microservices were managed behind an API Gateway, Netflix’s Zuul. Service discovery and load balancing were handled by Netflix’s Eureka. Both Zuul and Eureka are part of the Spring Cloud Netflix project. In that post, the entire containerized system was deployed to Docker Swarm.
Developing the services, not operationalizing the platform, was the primary objective of the previous post.
The following technologies are featured prominently in this post.
In May 2018, Google announced a partnership with Confluence to provide Confluent Cloud on GCP, a managed Apache Kafka solution for the Google Cloud Platform. Confluent, founded by the creators of Kafka, Jay Kreps, Neha Narkhede, and Jun Rao, is known for their commercial, Kafka-based streaming platform for the Enterprise.
Confluent Cloud is a fully-managed, cloud-based streaming service based on Apache Kafka. Confluent Cloud delivers a low-latency, resilient, scalable streaming service, deployable in minutes. Confluent deploys, upgrades, and maintains your Kafka clusters. Confluent Cloud is currently available on both AWS and GCP.
Confluent Cloud offers two plans, Professional and Enterprise. The Professional plan is optimized for projects under development, and for smaller organizations and applications. Professional plan rates for Confluent Cloud start at $0.55/hour. The Enterprise plan adds full enterprise capabilities such as service-level agreements (SLAs) with a 99.95% uptime and virtual private cloud (VPC) peering. The limitations and supported features of both plans are detailed, here.
Similar to Confluent Cloud, MongoDB Atlas is a fully-managed MongoDB-as-a-Service, available on AWS, Azure, and GCP. Atlas, a mature SaaS product, offers high-availability, uptime SLAs, elastic scalability, cross-region replication, enterprise-grade security, LDAP integration, BI Connector, and much more.
MongoDB Atlas currently offers four pricing plans, Free, Basic, Pro, and Enterprise. Plans range from the smallest, M0-sized MongoDB cluster, with shared RAM and 512 MB storage, up to the massive M400 MongoDB cluster, with 488 GB of RAM and 3 TB of storage.
MongoDB Atlas has been featured in several past posts, including Deploying and Configuring Istio on Google Kubernetes Engine (GKE) and Developing Applications for the Cloud with Azure App Services and MongoDB Atlas.
According to Google, Google Kubernetes Engine (GKE) provides a fully-managed, production-ready Kubernetes environment for deploying, managing, and scaling your containerized applications using Google infrastructure. GKE consists of multiple Google Compute Engine instances, grouped together to form a cluster.
A forerunner to other managed Kubernetes platforms, like EKS (AWS), AKS (Azure), PKS (Pivotal), and IBM Cloud Kubernetes Service, GKE launched publicly in 2015. GKE was built on Google’s experience of running hyper-scale services like Gmail and YouTube in containers for over 12 years.
GKE’s pricing is based on a pay-as-you-go, per-second-billing plan, with no up-front or termination fees, similar to Confluent Cloud and MongoDB Atlas. Cluster sizes range from 1 – 1,000 nodes. Node machine types may be optimized for standard workloads, CPU, memory, GPU, or high-availability. Compute power ranges from 1 – 96 vCPUs and memory from 1 – 624 GB of RAM.
In this post, we will deploy the three Storefront API microservices to a GKE cluster on GCP. Confluent Cloud on GCP will replace the previous Docker-based Kafka implementation. Similarly, MongoDB Atlas will replace the previous Docker-based MongoDB implementation.
Kubernetes and Istio 1.0 will replace Netflix’s Zuul and Eureka for API management, load-balancing, routing, and service discovery. Google Stackdriver will provide logging and monitoring. Docker Images for the services will be stored in Google Container Registry. Although not fully operationalized, the Storefront API will be closer to a Production-like platform, than previously demonstrated on Docker Swarm.
For brevity, we will not enable standard API security features like HTTPS, OAuth for authentication, and request quotas and throttling, all of which are essential in Production. Nor, will we integrate a full lifecycle API management tool, like Google Apigee.
The source code for this demonstration is contained in four separate GitHub repositories, storefront-kafka-docker, storefront-demo-accounts, storefront-demo-orders, and, storefront-demo-fulfillment. However, since the Docker Images for the three storefront services are available on Docker Hub, it is only necessary to clone the storefront-kafka-docker project. This project contains all the code to deploy and configure the GKE cluster and Kubernetes resources (gist).
Source code samples in this post are displayed as GitHub Gists, which may not display correctly on all mobile and social media browsers.
The setup of the Storefront API platform is divided into a few logical steps:
- Create the MongoDB Atlas cluster;
- Create the Confluent Cloud Kafka cluster;
- Create Kafka topics;
- Modify the Kubernetes resources;
- Modify the microservices to support Confluent Cloud configuration;
- Create the GKE cluster with Istio on GCP;
- Apply the Kubernetes resources to the GKE cluster;
- Test the Storefront API, Kafka, and MongoDB are functioning properly;
MongoDB Atlas Cluster
This post assumes you already have a MongoDB Atlas account and an existing project created. MongoDB Atlas accounts are free to set up if you do not already have one. Account creation does require the use of a Credit Card.
For minimal latency, we will be creating the MongoDB Atlas, Confluent Cloud Kafka, and GKE clusters, all on the Google Cloud Platform’s us-central1 Region. Available GCP Regions and Zones for MongoDB Atlas, Confluent Cloud, and GKE, vary, based on multiple factors.
For this demo, I suggest creating a free, M0-sized MongoDB cluster. The M0-sized 3-data node cluster, with shared RAM and 512 MB of storage, and currently running MongoDB 4.0.4, is fine for individual development. The us-central1 Region is the only available US Region for the free-tier M0-cluster on GCP. An M0-sized Atlas cluster may take between 7-10 minutes to provision.
MongoDB Atlas’ Web-based management console provides convenient links to cluster details, metrics, alerts, and documentation.
Once the cluster is ready, you can review details about the cluster and each individual cluster node.
In addition to the account owner, create a
demo_user account. This account will be used to authenticate and connect with the MongoDB databases from the storefront services. For this demo, we will use the same, single user account for all three services. In Production, you would most likely have individual users for each service.
Again, for security purposes, Atlas requires you to whitelist the IP address or CIDR block from which the storefront services will connect to the cluster. For now, open the access to your specific IP address using whatsmyip.com, or much less-securely, to all IP addresses (
0.0.0.0/0). Once the GKE cluster and external static IP addresses are created, make sure to come back and update this value; do not leave this wide open to the Internet.
The Java Spring Boot storefront services use a Spring Profile,
gke. According to Spring, Spring Profiles provide a way to segregate parts of your application configuration and make it available only in certain environments. The
gke Spring Profile’s configuration values may be set in a number of ways. For this demo, the majority of the values will be set using Kubernetes Deployment, ConfigMap and Secret resources, shown later.
The first two Spring configuration values will need are the MongoDB Atlas cluster’s connection string and the
demo_user account password. Note these both for later use.
Confluent Cloud Kafka Cluster
Similar to MongoDB Atlas, this post assumes you already have a Confluent Cloud account and an existing project. It is free to set up a Professional account and a new project if you do not already have one. Atlas account creation does require the use of a Credit Card.
The Confluent Cloud web-based management console is shown below. Experienced users of other SaaS platforms may find the Confluent Cloud web-based console a bit sparse on features. In my opinion, the console lacks some necessary features, like cluster observability, individual Kafka topic management, detailed billing history (always says $0?), and persistent history of cluster activities, which survives cluster deletion. It seems like Confluent prefers users to download and configure their Confluent Control Center to get the functionality you might normally expect from a web-based Saas management tool.
As explained earlier, for minimal latency, I suggest creating the MongoDB Atlas cluster, Confluent Cloud Kafka cluster, and the GKE cluster, all on the Google Cloud Platform’s us-central1 Region. For this demo, choose the smallest cluster size available on GCP, in the us-central1 Region, with 1 MB/s R/W throughput and 500 MB of storage. As shown below, the cost will be approximately $0.55/hour. Don’t forget to delete this cluster when you are done with the demonstration, or you will continue to be charged.
Cluster creation of the minimally-sized Confluent Cloud cluster is pretty quick.
Once the cluster is ready, Confluent provides instructions on how to interact with the cluster via the Confluent Cloud CLI. Install the Confluent Cloud CLI, locally, for use later.
As explained earlier, the Java Spring Boot storefront services use a Spring Profile,
gke. Like MongoDB Atlas, the Confluent Cloud Kafka cluster configuration values will be set using Kubernetes ConfigMap and Secret resources, shown later. There are several Confluent Cloud Java configuration values shown in the Client Config Java tab; we will need these for later use.
SASL and JAAS
Some users may not be familiar with the terms, SASL and JAAS. According to Wikipedia, Simple Authentication and Security Layer (SASL) is a framework for authentication and data security in Internet protocols. According to Confluent, Kafka brokers support client authentication via SASL. SASL authentication can be enabled concurrently with SSL encryption (SSL client authentication will be disabled).
There are numerous SASL mechanisms. The PLAIN SASL mechanism (SASL/PLAIN), used by Confluent, is a simple username/password authentication mechanism that is typically used with TLS for encryption to implement secure authentication. Kafka supports a default implementation for SASL/PLAIN which can be extended for production use. The SASL/PLAIN mechanism should only be used with SSL as a transport layer to ensure that clear passwords are not transmitted on the wire without encryption.
According to Wikipedia, Java Authentication and Authorization Service (JAAS) is the Java implementation of the standard Pluggable Authentication Module (PAM) information security framework. According to Confluent, Kafka uses the JAAS for SASL configuration. You must provide JAAS configurations for all SASL authentication mechanisms.
Similar to MongoDB Atlas, we need to authenticate with the Confluent Cloud cluster from the storefront services. The authentication to Confluent Cloud is done with an API Key. Create a new API Key, and note the Key and Secret; these two additional pieces of configuration will be needed later.
Confluent Cloud API Keys can be created and deleted as necessary. For security in Production, API Keys should be created for each service and regularly rotated.
With the cluster created, create the storefront service’s three Kafka topics manually, using the Confluent Cloud’s
ccloud CLI tool. First, configure the Confluent Cloud CLI using the
ccloud init command, using your new cluster’s Bootstrap Servers address, API Key, and API Secret. The instructions are shown above Clusters Client Config tab of the Confluent Cloud web-based management interface.
Create the storefront service’s three Kafka topics using the
ccloud topic create command. Use the
list command to confirm they are created.
# manually create kafka topics ccloud topic create accounts.customer.change ccloud topic create fulfillment.order.change ccloud topic create orders.order.fulfill # list kafka topics ccloud topic list accounts.customer.change fulfillment.order.change orders.order.fulfill
topic describe, displays topic replication details. The new topics will have a replication factor of 3 and a partition count of 12.
--verbose flag to the command,
ccloud --verbose topic describe, displays low-level topic and cluster configuration details, as well as a log of all topic-related activities.
The deployment of the three storefront microservices to the
dev Namespace will minimally require the following Kubernetes configuration resources.
- (1) Kubernetes Namespace;
- (3) Kubernetes Deployments;
- (3) Kubernetes Services;
- (1) Kubernetes ConfigMap;
- (2) Kubernetes Secrets;
- (1) Istio 1.0 Gateway;
- (1) Istio 1.0 VirtualService;
- (2) Istio 1.0 ServiceEntry;
v1alpha3 API introduced the last three configuration resources in the list, to control traffic routing into, within, and out of the mesh. There are a total of four new io
v1alpha3 API routing resources: Gateway, VirtualService, DestinationRule, and ServiceEntry.
Creating and managing such a large number of resources is a common complaint regarding the complexity of Kubernetes. Imagine the resource sprawl when you have dozens of microservices replicated across several namespaces. Fortunately, all resource files for this post are included in the storefront-kafka-docker project’s gke directory.
To follow along with the demo, you will need to make minor modifications to a few of these resources, including the Istio Gateway, Istio VirtualService, two Istio ServiceEntry resources, and two Kubernetes Secret resources.
Istio Gateway & VirtualService
Both the Istio Gateway and VirtualService configuration resources are contained in a single file, istio-gateway.yaml. For the demo, I am using a personal domain,
storefront-demo.com, along with the sub-domain,
api.dev, to host the Storefront API. The domain’s primary A record (‘@’) and sub-domain A record are both associated with the external IP address on the frontend of the load balancer. In the file, this host is configured for the Gateway and VirtualService resources. You can choose to replace the host with your own domain, or simply remove the host block altogether on lines 13–14 and 21–22. Removing the host blocks, you would then use the external IP address on the frontend of the load balancer (explained later in the post) to access the Storefront API (gist).
There are two Istio ServiceEntry configuration resources. Both ServiceEntry resources control egress traffic from the Storefront API services, both of their ServiceEntry Location items are set to
MESH_INTERNAL. The first ServiceEntry, mongodb-atlas-external-mesh.yaml, defines MongoDB Atlas cluster egress traffic from the Storefront API (gist).
Both need to have their
host items replaced with the appropriate Atlas and Confluent URLs.
Inspecting Istio Resources
The easiest way to view Istio resources is from the command line using the
kubectl CLI tools.
istioctl get gateway istioctl get virtualservices istioctl get serviceentry kubectl describe gateway kubectl describe virtualservices kubectl describe serviceentry
In this demo, we are only deploying to a single Kubernetes Namespace,
dev. However, Istio will also support routing traffic to multiple namespaces. For example, a typical non-prod Kubernetes cluster might support
uat, each associated with a different sub-domain. One way to support multiple Namespaces with Istio 1.0 is to add each host to the Istio Gateway (lines 14–16, below), then create a separate Istio VirtualService for each Namespace. All the VirtualServices are associated with the single Gateway. In the VirtualService, each service’s host address is the fully qualified domain name (FQDN) of the service. Part of the FQDN is the Namespace, which we change for each for each VirtualService (gist).
MongoDB Atlas Secret
There is one Kubernetes Secret for the sensitive MongoDB configuration and one Secret for the sensitive Confluent Cloud configuration. The Kubernetes Secret object type is intended to hold sensitive information, such as passwords, OAuth tokens, and SSH keys.
Kubernetes Secrets are Base64 encoded. The easiest way to encode the secret values is using the Linux
base64 program. The
base64 program encodes and decodes Base64 data, as specified in RFC 4648. Pass each MongoDB URI string to the
base64 program using
MONGODB_URI=mongodb+srv://demo_user:your_password@your_cluster_address/accounts?retryWrites=true echo -n $MONGODB_URI | base64 bW9uZ29kYitzcnY6Ly9kZW1vX3VzZXI6eW91cl9wYXNzd29yZEB5b3VyX2NsdXN0ZXJfYWRkcmVzcy9hY2NvdW50cz9yZXRyeVdyaXRlcz10cnVl
Repeat this process for the three MongoDB connection strings.
Confluent Cloud Secret
The confluent-cloud-kafka-secret.yaml file contains two data fields in the Secret’s data map,
sasl.jaas.config. These configuration items were both listed in the Client Config Java tab of the Confluent Cloud web-based management console, as shown previously. The
sasl.jaas.config data field requires the Confluent Cloud cluster API Key and Secret you created earlier. Again, use the base64 encoding process for these two data fields (gist).
Confluent Cloud ConfigMap
Accounts Deployment Resource
To see how the services consume the ConfigMap and Secret values, review the Accounts Deployment resource, shown below. Note the environment variables section, on lines 44–90, are a mix of hard-coded values and values referenced from the ConfigMap and two Secrets, shown above (gist).
Modify Microservices for Confluent Cloud
As explained earlier, Confluent Cloud’s Kafka cluster requires some very specific configuration, based largely on the security features of Confluent Cloud. Connecting to Confluent Cloud requires some minor modifications to the existing storefront service source code. The changes are identical for all three services. To understand the service’s code, I suggest reviewing the previous post, Using Eventual Consistency and Spring for Kafka to Manage a Distributed Data Model: Part 1. Note the following changes are already made to the source code in the
gke git branch, and not necessary for this demo.
The previous Kafka
ReceiverConfig Java classes have been converted to Java interfaces. There are four new
ReceiverConfigNonConfluent classes, which implement one of the new interfaces. The new classes contain the Spring Boot Profile class-level annotation. One set of Sender and Receiver classes are assigned the
@Profile("gke") annotation, and the others, the
@Profile("!gke") annotation. When the services start, one of the two class implementations are is loaded, depending on the Active Spring Profile,
gke or not
gke. To understand the changes better, examine the Account service’s SenderConfigConfluent.java file (gist).
Line 20: Designates this class as belonging to the
gke Spring Profile.
Line 23: The class now implements an interface.
Lines 25–44: Reference the Confluent Cloud Kafka cluster configuration. The values for these variables will come from the Kubernetes ConfigMap and Secret, described previously, when the services are deployed to GKE.
Lines 55–59: Additional properties that have been added to the Kafka Sender configuration properties, specifically for Confluent Cloud.
Once code changes were completed and tested, the Docker Image for each service was rebuilt and uploaded to Docker Hub for public access. When recreating the images, the version of the Java Docker base image was upgraded from the previous post to Alpine OpenJDK 12 (
Google Kubernetes Engine (GKE) with Istio
Having created the MongoDB Atlas and Confluent Cloud clusters, built the Kubernetes and Istio resources, modified the service’s source code, and pushed the new Docker Images to Docker Hub, the GKE cluster may now be built.
For the sake of brevity, we will manually create the cluster and deploy the resources, using the Google Cloud SDK gcloud and Kubernetes kubectl CLI tools, as opposed to automating with CI/CD tools, like Jenkins or Spinnaker. For this demonstration, I suggest a minimally-sized two-node GKE cluster using n1-standard-2 machine-type instances. The latest available release of Kubernetes on GKE at the time of this post was 1.11.5-gke.5 and Istio 1.03 (Istio on GKE still considered beta). Note Kubernetes and Istio are evolving rapidly, thus the configuration flags often change with newer versions. Check the GKE Clusters tab for the latest
clusters create command format (gist).
Executing these commands successfully will build the cluster and the
dev Namespace, into which all the resources will be deployed. The two-node cluster creation process takes about three minutes on average.
We can also observe the new GKE cluster from the GKE Clusters Details tab.
Creating the GKE cluster also creates several other GCP resources, including a TCP load balancer and three external IP addresses. Shown below in the VPC network External IP addresses tab, there is one IP address associated with each of the two GKE cluster’s VM instances, and one IP address associated with the frontend of the load balancer.
While the TCP load balancer’s frontend is associated with the external IP address, the load balancer’s backend is a target pool, containing the two GKE cluster node machine instances.
A forwarding rule associates the load balancer’s frontend IP address with the backend target pool. External requests to the frontend IP address will be routed to the GKE cluster. From there, requests will be routed by Kubernetes and Istio to the individual storefront service Pods, and through the Istio sidecar (Envoy) proxies. There is an Istio sidecar proxy deployed to each Storefront service Pod.
Below, we see the details of the load balancer’s target pool, containing the two GKE cluster’s VMs.
As shown at the start of the post, a simplified view of the GCP/GKE network routing looks as follows. For brevity, firewall rules and routes are not illustrated in the diagram.
Apply Kubernetes Resources
Again, using kubectl, deploy the three services and associated Kubernetes and Istio resources. Note the Istio Gateway and VirtualService(s) are not deployed to the
dev Namespace since their role is to control ingress and route traffic to the
dev Namespace and the services within it (gist).
Once these commands complete successfully, on the Workloads tab, we should observe two Pods of each of the three storefront service Kubernetes Deployments deployed to the
dev Namespace, all six Pods with a Status of ‘OK’. A Deployment controller provides declarative updates for Pods and ReplicaSets.
On the Services tab, we should observe the three storefront service’s Kubernetes Services. A Service in Kubernetes is a REST object.
On the Configuration Tab, we should observe the Kubernetes ConfigMap and two Secrets also deployed to the dev Environment.
Below, we see the confluent-cloud-kafka ConfigMap resource with its data map of Confluent Cloud configuration.
Below, we see the confluent-cloud-kafka Secret with its data map of sensitive Confluent Cloud configuration.
Test the Storefront API
If you recall from part two of the previous post, there are a set of seven Storefront API endpoints that can be called to create sample data and test the API. The HTTP GET Requests hit each service, generate test data, populate the three MongoDB databases, and produce and consume Kafka messages across all three topics. Making these requests is the easiest way to confirm the Storefront API is working properly.
- Sample Customer: accounts/customers/sample
- Sample Orders: orders/customers/sample/orders
- Sample Fulfillment Requests: orders/customers/sample/fulfill
- Sample Processed Order Event: fulfillment/fulfillment/sample/process
- Sample Shipped Order Event: fulfillment/fulfillment/sample/ship
- Sample In-Transit Order Event: fulfillment/fulfillment/sample/in-transit
- Sample Received Order Event: fulfillment/fulfillment/sample/receive
Thee are a wide variety of tools to interact with the Storefront API. The project includes a simple Python script, sample_data.py, which will make HTTP GET requests to each of the above endpoints, after confirming their health, and return a success message.
Postman, my personal favorite, is also an excellent tool to explore the Storefront API resources. I have the above set of the HTTP GET requests saved in a Postman Collection. Using Postman, below, we see the response from an HTTP GET request to the
Postman also allows us to create integration tests and run Collections of Requests in batches using Postman’s Collection Runner. To test the Storefront API, below, I used Collection Runner to run a single series of integration tests, intended to confirm the API’s functionality, by checking for expected HTTP response codes and expected values in the response payloads. Postman also shows the response times from the Storefront API. Since this platform was not built to meet Production SLAs, measuring response times is less critical in the Development environment.
If you recall, the GKE cluster had the Stackdriver Kubernetes option enabled, which gives us, amongst other observability features, access to all cluster, node, pod, and container logs. To confirm data is flowing to the MongoDB databases and Kafka topics, we can check the logs from any of the containers. Below we see the logs from the two Accounts Pod containers. Observe the
AfterSaveListener handler firing on an
onAfterSave event, which sends a
CustomerChangeEvent payload to the
accounts.customer.change Kafka topic, without error. These entries confirm that both Atlas and Confluent Cloud are reachable by the GKE-based workloads, and appear to be functioning properly.
MongoDB Atlas Collection View
Review the MongoDB Atlas Clusters Collections tab. In this Development environment, the MongoDB databases and collections are created the first time a service tries to connects to them. In Production, the databases would be created and secured in advance of deploying resources. Once the sample data requests are completed successfully, you should now observe the three Storefront API databases, each with collections of documents.
In addition to the Atlas web-based management console, MongoDB Compass is an excellent desktop tool to explore and manage MongoDB databases. Compass is available for Mac, Linux, and Windows. One of the many great features of Compass is the ability to visualize collection schemas and interactively filter documents. Below we see the
fulfillment.requests collection schema.
Confluent Control Center
Confluent Control Center is a downloadable, web browser-based tool for managing and monitoring Apache Kafka, including your Confluent Cloud clusters. Confluent Control Center provides rich functionality for building and monitoring production data pipelines and streaming applications. Confluent offers a free 30-day trial of Confluent Control Center. Since the Control Center is provided at an additional fee, and I found difficult to configure for Confluent Cloud clusters based on Confluent’s documentation, I chose not to cover it in detail, for this post.
Tear Down Cluster
Delete your Confluent Cloud and MongoDB clusters using their web-based management consoles. To delete the GKE cluster and all deployed Kubernetes resources, use the
cluster delete command. Also, double-check that the external IP addresses and load balancer, associated with the cluster, were also deleted as part of the cluster deletion (gist).
In this post, we have seen how easy it is to integrate Cloud-based DBaaS and MaaS products with the managed Kubernetes services from GCP, AWS, and Azure. As this post demonstrated, leading SaaS providers have sufficiently matured the integration capabilities of their product offerings to a point where it is now reasonable for enterprises to architect multi-vendor, single- and multi-cloud Production platforms, without re-engineering existing cloud-native applications.
In future posts, we will revisit this Storefront API example, further demonstrating how to enable HTTPS (Securing Your Istio Ingress Gateway with HTTPS) and end-user authentication (Istio End-User Authentication for Kubernetes using JSON Web Tokens (JWT) and Auth0)
All opinions expressed in this post are my own and not necessarily the views of my current or past employers or their clients.