Posts Tagged IIoT
BLE and GATT for IoT: Getting Started with Bluetooth Low Energy and the Generic Attribute Profile Specification for IoT
According to Wikipedia, Bluetooth is a wireless technology standard used for exchanging data between fixed and mobile devices over short distances. Bluetooth Low Energy (Bluetooth LE or BLE) is a wireless personal area network (WPAN) technology designed and marketed by the Bluetooth Special Interest Group (Bluetooth SIG). According to the Bluetooth SIG, BLE is designed for very low power operation. BLE supports data rates from 125 Kb/s to 2 Mb/s, with multiple power levels from 1 milliwatt (mW) to 100 mW. Several key factors influence the effective range of a reliable Bluetooth connection, which can vary from a kilometer down to less than a meter. The newer generation Bluetooth 5 provides a theoretical 4x range improvement over Bluetooth 4.2, from approximately 200 feet (60 meters) to 800 feet (240 meters).
Wikipedia currently lists 36 definitions of Bluetooth profiles defined and adopted by the Bluetooth SIG, including the Generic Attribute Profile (GATT) Specification. According to the Bluetooth SIG, GATT is built on top of the Attribute Protocol (ATT) and establishes common operations and a framework for the data transported and stored by the ATT. GATT provides profile discovery and description services for the BLE protocol. It defines how ATT attributes are grouped together into sets to form services.
Given its low energy consumption and well-developed profiles, such as GATT, BLE is an ideal short-range wireless protocol for Internet of Things (IoT) devices, when compared to competing protocols, such as ZigBee, Bluetooth classic, and Wi-Fi. In this post, we will explore the use of BLE and the GATT specification to transmit environmental sensor data from an IoT Sensor to an IoT Gateway.
In this post, we will use an Arduino single-board microcontroller to serve as an IoT sensor, actually an array of sensors. The 3.3V AI-enabled Arduino Nano 33 BLE Sense board, released in August 2019, comes with the powerful nRF52840 processor from Nordic Semiconductors, a 32-bit ARM Cortex-M4 CPU running at 64 MHz, 1MB of CPU Flash Memory, 256KB of SRAM, and a NINA-B306 stand-alone Bluetooth 5 low energy module.
The Sense also contains an impressive array of embedded sensors:
- 9-axis Inertial Sensor (LSM9DS1): 3D digital linear acceleration sensor, a 3D digital
angular rate sensor, and a 3D digital magnetic sensor
- Humidity and Temperature Sensor (HTS221): Capacitive digital sensor for relative humidity and temperature
- Barometric Sensor (LPS22HB): MEMS nano pressure sensor: 260–1260 hectopascal (hPa) absolute digital output barometer
- Microphone (MP34DT05): MEMS audio sensor omnidirectional digital microphone
- Gesture, Proximity, Light Color, and Light Intensity Sensor (APDS9960): Advanced Gesture detection, Proximity detection, Digital Ambient Light Sense (ALS), and Color Sense (RGBC).
The Sense is an excellent, low-cost single-board microcontroller for learning about collecting and transmitting IoT sensor data.
An IoT Gateway, according to TechTarget, is a physical device or software program that serves as the connection point between the Cloud and controllers, sensors, and intelligent devices. All data moving to the Cloud, or vice versa goes through the gateway, which can be either a dedicated hardware appliance or software program.
In this post, we will use a recent Raspberry Pi 3 Model B+ single-board computer (SBC), to serve as an IoT Gateway. This Raspberry Pi model features a 1.4GHz Cortex-A53 (ARMv8) 64-bit quad-core processor System on a Chip (SoC), 1GB LPDDR2 SDRAM, dual-band wireless LAN, Bluetooth 4.2 BLE, and Gigabit Ethernet. To follow along with the post, you could substitute the Raspberry Pi for any Linux-based machine to run the included sample Python script.
The Arduino will transmit IoT sensor telemetry, over BLE, to the Raspberry Pi. The Raspberry Pi, using Wi-Fi or Ethernet, is then able to securely transmit the sensor telemetry data to the Cloud. In Bluetooth terminology, the Bluetooth Peripheral device (aka GATT Server), which is the Arduino, will transmit data to the Bluetooth Central device (aka GATT Client), which is the Raspberry Pi.
For those not familiar with Arduino, a sketch is the name that Arduino uses for a program. It is the unit of code that is uploaded to run on an Arduino board. For this post, the sketch, combo_sensor_ble.ino, contains all the code necessary to collect environmental sensor telemetry, including temperature, relative humidity, barometric pressure, and ambient light and RGB color. All code for this post, including the sketch, can be found on GitHub.
The sensor telemetry will be advertised by the Sense, over BLE, as a GATT Environmental Sensing Service (GATT Assigned Number 0x181A) with multiple GATT Characteristics. Each Characteristic represents a sensor reading and contains the most current sensor value(s), for example, Temperature (0x2A6E) or Humidity (0x2A6F).
Each GATT Characteristic defines how the data should be represented. To represent the data accurately, the sensor readings need to be modified. For example, using ArduinoHTS221 library, the temperature is captured with two decimal points of precision (e.g., 22.21 °C). However, the Temperature GATT Characteristic (0x2A6E) requires a signed 16-bit value (-32,768–32,767). To maintain precision, the captured value (e.g., 22.21 °C) is multiplied by 100 to convert it to an integer (e.g., 2221). The Raspberry Pi will then handle converting the value back to the original value with the correct precision.
The GATT specification has no current predefined Characteristic representing ambient light and RGB color. Therefore, I have created a custom Characteristic for the color values and assigned it a universally unique identifier (UUID).
According to the documentation, ambient light and RGB color are captured as 16-bit values (a range of 0–65,535). However, using the ArduinoAPDS9960 library, I have found the scale of the readings to be within a range of 0–4097. Without diving into the weeds, the maximum count (or saturation) value is variable. It can be calculated based upon the integration time and the size of the count register (e.g., 16-bits). The ADC integration time appears to be set to 10 ms in the library’s file, Arduino_APDS9960.cpp.
RGB values are typically represented as 8-bit color. We could convert the values to 8-bit before sending or handle it later on the Raspberry Pi IoT Gateway. For the sake of demonstration purposes versus data transfer efficiency, the sketch concatenates the 12-bit values together as a string (e.g.,
4097,2811,1500,4097). The string will be converted from 12-bit to 8-bit on the Raspberry Pi (e.g.,
Previewing and Debugging BLE Device Services
Before looking at the code running on the Raspberry Pi, we can use any number of mobile applications to preview and debug the Environmental Sensing service running on the Arduino and being advertised over BLE. A commonly recommended application is Nordic Semiconductor’s nRF Connect for Mobile, available on Google Play. I have found the Android version works better at correctly interpreting and displaying GATT Characteristic values than the iOS version of the app.
Below, we see a scan of my local vicinity for BLE devices being advertised, using the Android version of the nRF Connect mobile application. Note the BLE device, ArduinoNano33BLESense (indicated in red). Also, note the media access control address (MAC address) of that BLE device, in my case,
d1:aa:89:0c:ee:82. The MAC address will be required later on the IoT Gateway.
Connecting to the device, we see three Services. The Environmental Sensing Service (indicated in red) contains the sensor readings.
Drilling down into the Environmental Sensing Service (0x181A), we see the four expected Characteristics: Temperature (0x2A6E), Humidity (0x2A6F), Pressure (0x2A6D), and Unknown Characteristic (936b6a25-e503-4f7c-9349-bcc76c22b8c3). Since nRF Connect cannot recognize the color sensor reading as a registered GATT Characteristic (no GATT Assigned Number), it is displayed as an Unknown Characteristic. Whereas the temperature, humidity, and pressure values (indicated in red) are interpreted and displayed correctly, the color sensor reading is left as raw hexadecimal text (e.g.,
These results indicate everything is working as expected.
BLE Client Python Code
To act as the BLE Client (aka central device), the Raspberry Pi runs a Python script. The script, rasppi_ble_receiver.py, uses the bluepy Python module for interfacing with BLE devices through Bluez, on Linux.
To run the Python script, execute the following command, substituting the MAC address argument for your own BLE device’s advertised MAC address.
python3 ./rasppi_ble_receiver.py d1:aa:89:0c:ee:82
Unlike the nRF Connect app, the bluepy Python module is not capable of correctly interpreting and displaying the GATT Characteristic values. Hence, the script takes the raw, incoming hexadecimal text from the Arduino and coerces it to the correct values. For example, a temperature reading must be transformed from bytes,
b'\xb8\x08\x00\x00', to a byte array,
bytearray(b'\xb8\x08\x00\x00'), then to an integer,
2232, then to a decimal,
22.32, and finally to the Fahrenheit scale,
Sensor readings are retrieved from the BLE device every two seconds. In addition to displaying the numeric sensor readings, the Python script also displays a color swatch of the 8-bit RGB color, as well as a grayscale swatch representing the light intensity using the colr Python module.
The following screen recording shows a parallel view of both the Arduino Serial Monitor and the Raspberry Pi’s terminal output. The Raspberry Pi (central device) connects to the Arduino (peripheral device) when the Python script is started. The Raspberry Pi successfully reads and interprets the telemetry data from the Environmental Sensing Service.
In this post, we explored the use of BLE and the GATT specification to transmit environmental sensor data from a peripheral device to a central device. Given its low energy consumption and well-developed profiles, such as GATT, Bluetooth Low Energy (BLE) is an ideal short-range wireless protocol for IoT devices.
This blog represents my own viewpoints and not of my employer, Amazon Web Services.
AWS defines AWS IoT as a set of managed services that enable ‘internet-connected devices to connect to the AWS Cloud and lets applications in the cloud interact with internet-connected devices.’ AWS IoT services span three categories: Device Software, Connectivity and Control, and Analytics. In this post, we will focus on AWS IoT Analytics, one of four services, which are part of the AWS IoT Analytics category. According to AWS, AWS IoT Analytics is a fully-managed IoT analytics service, designed specifically for IoT, which collects, pre-processes, enriches, stores, and analyzes IoT device data at scale.
Certainly, AWS IoT Analytics is not the only way to analyze the Internet of Things (IoT) or Industrial Internet of Things (IIoT) data on AWS. It is common to see Data Analyst teams using a more general AWS data analytics stack, composed of Amazon S3, Amazon Kinesis, AWS Glue, and Amazon Athena or Amazon Redshift and Redshift Spectrum, for analyzing IoT data. So then why choose AWS IoT Analytics over a more traditional AWS data analytics stack? According to AWS, IoT Analytics was purpose-built to manage the complexities of IoT and IIoT data on a petabyte-scale. According to AWS, IoT data frequently has significant gaps, corrupted messages, and false readings that must be cleaned up before analysis can occur. Additionally, IoT data must often be enriched and transformed to be meaningful. IoT Analytics can filter, transform, and enrich IoT data before storing it in a time-series data store for analysis.
In the following post, we will explore the use of AWS IoT Analytics to analyze environmental sensor data, in near real-time, from a series of IoT devices. To follow along with the post’s demonstration, there is an option to use sample data to simulate the IoT devices (see the ‘Simulating IoT Device Messages’ section of this post).
In this post, we will explore IoT Analytics using IoT data generated from a series of custom-built environmental sensor arrays. Each breadboard-based sensor array is connected to a Raspberry Pi single-board computer (SBC), the popular, low cost, credit-card sized Linux computer. The IoT devices were purposely placed in physical locations that vary in temperature, humidity, and other environmental conditions.
Each device includes the following sensors:
- MQ135 Air Quality Sensor Hazardous Gas Detection Sensor: CO, LPG, Smoke (link)
(requires an MCP3008 – 8-Channel 10-Bit ADC w/ SPI Interface (link))
- DHT22/AM2302 Digital Temperature and Humidity Sensor (link)
- Onyehn IR Pyroelectric Infrared PIR Motion Sensor (link)
- Anmbest Light Intensity Detection Photosensitive Sensor (link)
AWS IoT Device SDK
Each Raspberry Pi device runs a custom Python script, sensor_collector_v2.py. The script uses the AWS IoT Device SDK for Python v2 to communicate with AWS. The script collects a total of seven different readings from the four sensors at a regular interval. Sensor readings include temperature, humidity, carbon monoxide (CO), liquid petroleum gas (LPG), smoke, light, and motion.
The script securely publishes the sensor readings, along with a device ID and timestamp, as a single message, to AWS using the ISO standard Message Queuing Telemetry Transport (MQTT) network protocol. Below is an example of an MQTT message payload, published by the collector script.
As shown below, using
tcpdump on the IoT device, the MQTT message payloads generated by the script average approximately 275 bytes. The complete MQTT messages average around 300 bytes.
AWS IoT Core
Each Raspberry Pi is registered with AWS IoT Core. IoT Core allows users to quickly and securely connect devices to AWS. According to AWS, IoT Core can reliably scale to billions of devices and trillions of messages. Registered devices are referred to as things in AWS IoT Core. A thing is a representation of a specific device or logical entity. Information about a thing is stored in the registry as JSON data.
IoT Core provides a Device Gateway, which manages all active device connections. The Gateway currently supports MQTT, WebSockets, and HTTP 1.1 protocols. Behind the Message Gateway is a high-throughput pub/sub Message Broker, which securely transmits messages to and from all IoT devices and applications with low latency. Below, we see a typical AWS IoT Core architecture.
At a message frequency of five seconds, the three Raspberry Pi devices publish a total of roughly 50,000 IoT messages per day to AWS IoT Core.
AWS IoT Security
AWS IoT Core provides mutual authentication and encryption, ensuring all data is exchanged between AWS and the devices are secure by default. In the demo, all data is sent securely using Transport Layer Security (TLS) 1.2 with X.509 digital certificates on port 443. Authorization of the device to access any resource on AWS is controlled by individual AWS IoT Core Policies, similar to AWS IAM Policies. Below, we see an example of an X.509 certificate, assigned to a registered device.
AWS IoT Core Rules
Once an MQTT message is received from an IoT device (a thing), we use AWS IoT Rules to send message data to an AWS IoT Analytics Channel. Rules give your devices the ability to interact with AWS services. Rules are written in standard Structured Query Language (SQL). Rules are analyzed, and Actions are performed based on the MQTT topic stream. Below, we see an example rule that forwards our messages to IoT Analytics, in addition to AWS IoT Events and Amazon Kinesis Data Firehose.
Simulating IoT Device Messages
Building and configuring multiple Raspberry Pi-based sensor arrays, and registering the devices with AWS IoT Core would require a lot of work just for this post. Therefore, I have provided everything you need to simulate the three IoT devices, on GitHub. Use the following command to git clone a local copy of the project.
Use the CloudFormation template, iot-analytics.yaml, to create an IoT Analytics stack containing (17) resources, including the following.
- (3) AWS IoT Things
- (1) AWS IoT Core Topic Rule
- (1) AWS IoT Analytics Channel, Pipeline, Data store, and Data set
- (1) AWS Lambda and Lambda Permission
- (1) Amazon S3 Bucket
- (1) Amazon SageMaker Notebook Instance
- (5) AWS IAM Roles
Please be aware of the costs involved with the AWS resources used in the CloudFormation template before continuing. To build the AWS CloudFormation stack, run the following AWS CLI command.
Below, we see a successful deployment of the IoT Analytics Demo CloudFormation Stack.
Publishing Sample Messages
Once the CloudFormation stack is created successfully, use an included Python script, send_sample_messages.py, to send sample IoT data to an AWS IoT Topic, from your local machine. The script will use your AWS identity and credentials, instead of an actual IoT device registered with IoT Core. The IoT data will be intercepted by an IoT Topic Rule and redirected, using a Topic Rule Action, to the IoT Analytics Channel.
First, we will ensure the IoT stack is running correctly on AWS by sending a few test messages. Go to the AWS IoT Core Test tab. Subscribe to the
Then, run the following command using the smaller data file, raw_data_small.json.
If successful, you should see the five messages appear in the Test tab, shown above. Example output from the script is shown below.
Then, run the second command using the larger data file, raw_data_large.json, containing 9,995 messages (a few hours worth of data). The command will take approximately 12 minutes to complete.
Once the second command completes successfully, your IoT Analytics Channel should contain 10,000 unique messages. There is an optional extra-large data file containing approximately 50,000 IoT messages (24 hours of IoT messages).
AWS IoT Analytics
AWS IoT Analytics is composed of five primary components: Channels, Pipelines, Data stores, Data sets, and Notebooks. These components enable you to collect, prepare, store, analyze, and visualize your IoT data.
Below, we see a typical AWS IoT Analytics architecture. IoT messages are pulled from AWS IoT Core, thought a Rule Action. Amazon QuickSight provides business intelligence, visualization. Amazon QuickSight ML Insights adds anomaly detection and forecasting.
IoT Analytics Channel
An AWS IoT Analytics Channel pulls messages or data into IoT Analytics from other AWS sources, such as Amazon S3, Amazon Kinesis, or Amazon IoT Core. Channels store data for IoT Analytics Pipelines. Both Channels and Data store support storing data in your own Amazon S3 bucket or in an IoT Analytics service-managed S3 bucket. In the demonstration, we are using a service managed S3 bucket.
When creating a Channel, you also decide how long to retain the data. For the demonstration, we have set the data retention period for 14 days. Channels are generally not used for long term storage of data. Typically, you would only retain data in the Channel for the time period you need to analyze. For long term storage of IoT message data, I recommend using an AWS IoT Core Rule to send a copy of the raw IoT data to Amazon S3, using a service such as Amazon Kinesis Data Firehose.
IoT Analytics Pipeline
An AWS IoT Analytics Pipeline consumes messages from one or more Channels. Pipelines transform, filter, and enrich the messages before storing them in IoT Analytics Data stores. A Pipeline is composed of an array of activities. Logically, you must specify both a
Channel (source) and a
Datastore (destination) activity. Optionally, you may choose as many as 23 additional activities in the
In our demonstration’s Pipeline,
iot_analytics_pipeline, we have specified five additional activities, including
SelectAttributes. There are two additional Activity types we did not choose,
The demonstration’s Pipeline created by CloudFormation starts with messages from the demonstration’s Channel,
iot_analytics_channel, similar to the following.
The demonstration’s Pipeline transforms the messages through a series of Pipeline Activities and then stores the resulting message in the demonstration’s Data store,
iot_analytics_data_store. The resulting messages appear similar to the following.
In our demonstration, transformations to the messages include dropping the
device_id attribute and converting the
temp attribute value to Fahrenheit. In addition, the
Lambda Activity rounds down the
smoke attribute values to between 2–4 decimal places of precision.
The demonstration’s Pipeline also enriches the message with the
metadata attribute, containing metadata from the IoT device’s AWS IoT Core Registry. The metadata includes additional information about the device that generated the message, including custom attributes we input, such as location (longitude and latitude) and the device’s installation date.
A significant feature of Pipelines is the ability to reprocess messages. If you make a change to the Pipeline, which often happens during the data preparation stage, you can reprocess any or all messages in the associated Channel, and overwrite the messages in the Data set.
IoT Analytics Data store
An AWS IoT Analytics Data store stores prepared data from an AWS IoT Analytics Pipeline, in a fully-managed database. Both Channels and Data store support storing data in your own Amazon S3 bucket or in an IoT Analytics managed S3 bucket. In the demonstration, we are using a service-managed S3 bucket to store messages in our Data store.
IoT Analytics Data set
An AWS IoT Analytics Data set automatically provides regular, up-to-date insights for data analysts by querying a Data store using standard SQL. Regular updates are provided through the use of a cron expression. For the demonstration, we are using a 15-minute interval.
Below, we see the sample messages in the Result preview pane of the Data set. These are the five test messages we sent to check the stack. Note the SQL query used to obtain the messages, which queries the Data store. The Data store, as you will recall, contains the transformed messages from the Pipeline.
IoT Analytics Data sets also support sending content results, which are materialized views of your IoT Analytics data, to an Amazon S3 bucket.
The CloudFormation stack contains an encrypted Amazon S3 Bucket. This bucket receives a copy of the messages from the IoT Analytics Data set whenever the scheduled update is run by the cron expression.
IoT Analytics Notebook
An AWS IoT Analytics Notebook allows users to perform statistical analysis and machine learning on IoT Analytics Data sets using Jupyter Notebooks. The IoT Analytics Notebook service includes a set of notebook templates that contain AWS-authored machine learning models and visualizations. Notebooks Instances can be linked to a GitHub or other source code repository. Notebooks created with IoT Analytics Notebook can also be accessed directly through Amazon SageMaker. For the demonstration, the Notebooks Instance is associated with the project’s GitHub repository.
The repository contains a sample Jupyter Notebook, IoT_Analytics_Demo_Notebook.ipynb, based on the
conda_python3 kernel. This preinstalled environment includes the default Anaconda installation and Python 3. The Notebook uses pandas, matplotlib, and plotly to manipulate and visualize the sample IoT messages we published earlier and stored in the Data set.
Notebooks can be modified, and the changes pushed back to GitHub. You could easily fork a copy of my GitHub repository and modify the CloudFormation template, to include your own GitHub repository URL.
Amazon QuickSight provides business intelligence (BI) and visualization. Amazon QuickSight ML Insights adds anomaly detection and forecasting. We can use Amazon QuickSight to visualize the IoT message data, stored in the IoT Analytics Data set.
Amazon QuickSight has both a Standard and an Enterprise Edition. AWS provides a detailed product comparison of each edition. For the post, I am demonstrating the Enterprise Edition, which includes additional features, such as ML Insights, hourly refreshes of SPICE (super-fast, parallel, in-memory, calculation engine), and theme customization. Please be aware of the costs of Amazon QuickSight if you choose to follow along with this part of the demo. Amazon QuickSight is enabled or configured with the demonstration’s CloudFormation template.
QuickSight Data Sets
Amazon QuickSight has a wide variety of data source options for creating Amazon QuickSight Data sets, including the ones shown below. Do not confuse Amazon QuickSight Data sets with IoT Analytics Data sets. These are two different, yet similar, constructs.
For the demonstration, we will create an Amazon QuickSight Data set that will use our IoT Analytics Data set as a data source.
Amazon QuickSight gives you the ability to modify QuickSight Data sets. For the demonstration, I have added two additional fields, converting the boolean
motion values of true and false to binary values of 0 or 1. I have also deselected two fields that I do not need for QuickSight Analysis.
QuickSight provides a wide variety of functions, enabling us to perform dynamic calculations on the field values. Below, we see a new calculated field,
light_dec, containing the original light field’s Boolean values converted to binary values. I am using a
if...else formula to change the field’s value depending on the value in another field.
Using the QuickSight Data set, built from the IoT Analytics Data set as a data source, we create a QuickSight Analysis. The QuickSight Analysis user interface is shown below. An Analysis is primarily a collection of Visuals (Visual types). QuickSight provides a number of Visual types. Each visual is associated with a Data set. Data for the QuickSight Analysis or for each individual visual can be filtered. For the demo, I have created a QuickSight Analysis, including several typical QuickSight Visuals.
To share a QuickSight Analysis, we can create a QuickSight Dashboard. Below, we see a few views of the QuickSight Analysis, shown above, as a Dashboard. A viewer of the Dashboard cannot edit the visuals, though they can apply filtering and interactively drill-down into data in the Visuals.
Amazon QuickSight understands geospatial data. If you recall, in the IoT Analytics Pipeline, we enriched the messages in the metadata from the device registry. The metadata attributes contained the device’s longitude and latitude. Quicksight will recognize those fields as geographic fields. In our QuickSight Analysis, we can visualize the geospatial data, using the geospatial chart (map) Visual type.
QuickSight Mobile App
Amazon QuickSight offers free iOS and Android versions of the Amazon QuickSight Mobile App. The mobile application makes it easy for registered QuickSight end-users to securely connect to QuickSight Dashboards, using their mobile devices. Below, we see two views of the same Dashboard, shown in the iOS version of the Amazon QuickSight Mobile App.
Amazon QuickSight ML Insights
According to Amazon, ML Insights leverages AWS’s machine learning (ML) and natural language capabilities to gain deeper insights from data. QuickSight’s ML-powered Anomaly Detection continuously analyze data to discover anomalies and variations inside of the aggregates, giving you the insights to act when business changes occur. QuickSight’s ML-powered Forecasting can be used to accurately predict your business metrics, and perform interactive what-if analysis with point-and-click simplicity. QuickSight’s built-in algorithms make it easy for anyone to use ML that learns from your data patterns to provide you with accurate predictions based on historical trends.
Below, we see the ML Insights tab in the demonstration’s QuickSight Analysis. Individually detected anomalies can be added to the QuickSight Analysis, similar to Visuals, and configured to tune the detection parameters.
Below, we see an example of humidity anomalies across all devices, based on their Anomaly Score and are higher or lower with a minimum delta of five percent.
You are charged hourly for the SageMaker Notebook Instance. Do not forget to delete your CloudFormation stack when you are done with the demonstration. Note the Amazon S3 bucket will not be deleted; you must do this manually.
In this post, we demonstrated how to use AWS IoT Analytics to analyze and visualize streaming messages from multiple IoT devices, in near real-time. Combined with other AWS IoT analytics services, such as AWS IoT SiteWise, AWS IoT Events, and AWS IoT Things Graph, you can create a robust, full-featured IoT Analytics platform, capable of handling millions of industrial, commercial, and residential IoT devices, generating petabytes of data.
This blog represents my own viewpoints and not of my employer, Amazon Web Services.