Posts Tagged Oracle

Spring Integration with Eclipse Using Maven

Integrate the Spring Framework into your next Eclipse-based project using Apache Maven. Learn how to install, configure, and integrate these three leading Java development tools. All source code for this post is available on GitHub.

 

Introduction

Although there is a growing adoption of Java EE 6 and CDI in recent years, Spring is still a well-entrenched, open-source framework for professional Java development. According to GoPivotal’s website, “The Spring Framework provides a comprehensive programming and configuration model for modern Java-based enterprise applications. Spring focuses on the ‘plumbing’ of enterprise applications so that teams can focus on application-level business logic, without unnecessary ties to specific deployment environments.”

Similar to Spring in terms of wide-spread adoption, Eclipse is leading Java IDE, competing with Oracle’s NetBeans and JetBrain’s IntelliJ. The use of Spring within Eclipse is very common. In the following post, I will demonstrate the ease of integrating Spring with Eclipse, using Maven.

Maven is a marketed as a project management tool, centralizing a project’s build, reporting and documentation. Conveniently, Maven is tightly integrated with Eclipse. We will use Maven for one of its best known features, dependency management. Maven will take care of downloading and managing the required Spring artifacts into our Eclipse-based project.

Note there are alternatives to integrating Spring into Eclipse, using Maven. You can download and add the Spring artifacts yourself, or go full-bore with GoPivotal’s Spring Tool Suite (STS). According to their website, STS is an Eclipse-based development environment, customized for developing Spring applications.

The steps covered in this post are as follows:

  1. Download and install Maven
  2. Download and install the Eclipse IDE
  3. Linking the installed version of Maven to Eclipse
  4. Creating a new sample Maven Project
  5. Adding Spring dependencies to the project
  6. Demonstrate a simple example of Spring Beans and ApplicationContext
  7. Modify the project to allow execution from an external command prompt

Installing Maven

Installing Maven is simple process, requiring minimal configuration:

  1. Download the latest version of Maven from the Apache Maven Project website. At the time of this post, Maven is at version 3.1.1.
  2. Assuming you are Windows, unzip the ‘apache-maven-3.1.1’ folder and place in your ‘Program Files’ directory.
  3. Add the path to Maven’s bin directory to your system’s ‘PATH’ Environmental Variable.
Adding Maven bin Directory to PATH Environmental Variable

Adding Maven bin Directory to PATH Environmental Variable

We can test our Maven installation by opening a new Command Prompt and issuing the ‘mvn -version’ command. The command should display the installed version of Maven, Maven home directory, and other required variables, like your machine’s current version of Java and its location. To learn other Maven commands, try ‘mvn -help’.

Checking Maven is Installed Correctly

Checking Maven is Installed Correctly

Installing Eclipse IDE

Installing Eclipse is even easier:

  1. Download the latest version of Eclipse from The Eclipse Foundation website. There are several versions of Eclipse available. I chose ‘Eclipse IDE for Java EE Developers’, currently Kepler Service Release 1.
  2. Similar to Maven, unzip the ‘eclipse’ folder and place in your ‘Program Files’ directory.
  3. For ease of access, I recommend pinning the main eclispe.exe file to your Start Menu.
Downloading Eclipse IDE for Java EE Developers

Downloading Eclipse IDE for Java EE Developers

Linking Maven to Eclipse

The latest version of Eclipse comes pre-loaded with the ‘M2E – Maven Integration for Eclipse’ plug-in. There is no additional software installs required to use Maven from within Eclipse. Eclipse also includes an embedded runtime version of Maven (currently 3.04). According to the Eclipse website wiki, the M2E plug-in uses the embedded runtime version of Maven when running Maven builder, importing projects and updating project configuration.

Latest Version of Eclipse Kepler SR1 with M2E Installed

Latest Version of Eclipse Kepler SR1 with M2E Installed

Although Eclipse contains an embedded version of Maven, we can configure M2E to use our own external Maven installation when launching Maven using Run as… -> M2 Maven actions. To configure Maven to use the version of Maven we just installed:

  1. Go to Windows -> Preferences -> Maven -> Installations window. Note the embedded version of Maven is the only one listed and active.
  2. Click Add… and select the Maven folder we installed in your Program Files directory. Click OK.
  3. Check the box for new installation we just added instead of the embedded version. Click OK.
Adding Installed Version of Maven to Eclipse

Adding Installed Version of Maven to Eclipse

Adding Installed Version of Maven to Eclipse

Adding Installed Version of Maven to Eclipse

Adding Installed Version of Maven to Eclipse

Adding Installed Version of Maven to Eclipse

Sample Maven Project

To show how to integrate Spring into a project using Maven, we will create a Maven Project in Eclipse using the Maven Quickstart Archetype template. The basic project will show the use of Spring Beans and an ApplicationContext IoC container. On a scale of 1 to 10, with 10 being the most complex Spring example, this project is barely a 1! However, it will demonstrate that Spring is working in Eclipse, with minimal effort thanks to Maven.

To create the project:

  1. File -> New Project -> Other…
  2. Search on ‘maven’ in the Wizards text box and select ‘Maven Project’.
  3. Select the Maven Quickstart Archetype.
  4. Specify the Archetype parameters.
Creating a New Maven Project - Using Wizard

Creating a New Maven Project – Using Wizard

Creating a New Maven Project - Project Location

Creating a New Maven Project – Project Location

Creating a New Maven Project - Choosing Archetype

Creating a New Maven Project – Choosing Archetype

Creating a New Maven Project - Archetype Parameters

Creating a New Maven Project – Archetype Parameters

Spring Dependencies

Once the Maven Quickstart project is created, we will add the required Spring dependencies using Maven:

  1. Open the Maven Project Object Model (POM) file and select the Dependencies tab.
  2. Use the The Central Repository website to find the Dependency Information for spring-core and Spring-context artifacts (jar files).
  3. Add… both Spring Dependencies to the pom.xml file.
  4. Right-click on the project and click Maven -> Update Project…
Adding Spring Dependencies to pom.xml - Dependencies Tab

Adding Spring Dependencies to pom.xml – Dependencies Tab

Adding Spring Dependencies to pom.xml - Artifact Details for spring-core

Adding Spring Dependencies to pom.xml – Artifact Details for spring-core

Adding Spring Dependencies to pom.xml - Adding spring-context

Adding Spring Dependencies to pom.xml – Adding spring-context

Adding Spring Dependencies to pom.xml - Spring Dependencies Added

Adding Spring Dependencies to pom.xml – Spring Dependencies Added

Adding Spring Dependencies to pom.xml - Dependencies Added to Project

Adding Spring Dependencies to pom.xml – Dependencies Added to Project

We now have a Maven-managed Eclipse project with our Spring dependencies included. Note the root of the file paths to the jar files in the Maven Dependencies project folder is the location of our Maven Repository. This is where all the dependent artifacts (jar files) are stored. In my case, the root is ‘C:\Users\{user}\.m2\repository’. The repository location is stored in Eclipse’s Maven User Setting’s Preferences (see below).

Project Object Model File (pom.xml):

Location of Local Maven Repository

Local Maven Repository Location

Sample Code

Next add the supplied Code to the project. We will add two new java classes and a Spring configuration file. We will replace the contents of main App class with our sample code. Steps are as follows:

  1. Add the supplied Vehicle.java and MaintainVehicle.java class files to the project, in the same classpath as the App.java class.
  2. Add the supplied Beans.xml Spring configuration file to the project at the ‘src/main/java’ folder.
  3. Open the App.java class file and replace the contents with the supplied App.java class file.

The sample Spring application is based on vehicles. There are three Spring Beans defined in the xml-based Spring configuration file, representing three different vehicles. The main App class uses an ApplicationContext IoC Container to instantiate three Vehicle POJOs from the Spring Beans defined in the Beans.xml Spring configuration. The main class then instantiates an instance of the MaintainVehicle class, passes in the Vehicle objects and calls MaintainVehicle’s two methods.

Location of New Files in Project Explorer

Location of New Files in Project Explorer

Spring Configuration File (Beans.xml):

Main Method Class (App.java)

Running the Application

If successful, the application will output a series of messages to the Console. The first few messages in red are Spring-related messages, signifying Spring is working. The next messages in black are output by the application. The messages show that the three Spring Beans are successfully instantiated and passed to the MaintainVehicle object, where it’s methods were called. If the application would only buy me that Silver Mercedes!

Successful Console Output of Java Application

Successful Console Output of Java Application

Running the Application from a Command Prompt

All the source code for this project is available on GitHub. Note the pom.xml contains a some extra configuration information not shown above. The extra configuration information is not necessary for running the application from within Eclipse. However, if you want to run the application from an external Command Prompt, you will need the added configuration. This extra configuration ensures that the project is correctly packaged into a jar file, with all the necessary dependencies to run. Extra configuration includes an additional logging dependency, a resource reference to the Spring configuration file, one additional property, and three maven plug-in references for compiling and packaging the jar.

To run the java application from an external Command Prompt:

  1. Open a new Command Prompt
  2. Change current directory to the project’s root directory (local GitHub repository in my case)
  3. Run a ‘mvn compile’ command
  4. Run a ‘mvn package’ command (downloads dependencies and creates jar)
  5. Change the current directory to the project’s target sub-directory
  6. Run a ‘dir’ command. You should see the project’s jar file
  7. Run a ‘java -jar {name-of-jar-file.jar}’ command.

You should see the same messages output in Eclipse, earlier.

Running Application from External Command Prompt

Running Application from External Command Prompt

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Build a Continuous Deployment System with Maven, Hudson, WebLogic Server, and JUnit

Build an automated testing, continuous integration, and continuous deployment system, using Maven, Hudson, WebLogic Server, JUnit, and NetBeans. Developed with Oracle’s Pre-Built Enterprise Java Development VM. Download the complete source code from Dropbox and on GitHub.

System Diagram

Introduction

In this post, we will build a basic automated testing, continuous integration, and continuous deployment system, using Oracle’s Pre-Built Enterprise Java Development VM. The primary goal of the system is to automatically compile, test, and deploy a simple Java EE web application to a test environment. As this post will demonstrate, the key to a successful system is not a single application, but the effective integration of all the system’s applications into a well-coordinated and consistent workflow.

Building system such as this can be complex and time-consuming. However, Oracle’s Pre-Built Enterprise Java Development VM already has all the components we need. The Oracle VM includes NetBeans IDE for development, Apache Subversion for version control, Hudson Continuous Integration (CI) Server for build automation, JUnit and Hudson for unit test automation, and WebLogic Server for application hosting.

In addition, we will use Apache Maven, also included on the Oracle VM, to help manage our project’s dependencies, as well as the build and deployment process. Overlapping with some of Apache Ant’s build task functionality, Maven is a powerful cross-cutting tool for managing the modern software development projects. This post will only draw upon a small part of Maven’s functionality.

Demonstration Requirements

To save some time, we will use the same WebLogic Server (WLS) domain we built-in the last post, Deploying Applications to WebLogic Server on Oracle’s Pre-Built Development VM. We will also use code from the sample Hello World Java EE web project from that post. If you haven’t already done so, work through the last post’s example, first.

Here is a quick list of requirements for this demonstration:

  • Oracle VM
    • Oracle’s Pre-Built Enterprise Java Development VM running on current version of Oracle VM VirtualBox (mine: 4.2.12)
    • Oracle VM’s has the latest system updates installed (see earlier post for directions)
    • WLS domain from last post created and running in Oracle VM
    • Credentials supplied with Oracle VM for Hudson (username and password)
  • Window’s Development Machine
    • Current version of Apache Maven installed and configured (mine: 3.0.5)
    • Current version of NetBeans IDE installed and configured (mine: 7.3)
    • Optional: Current version of WebLogic Server installed and configured
    • All environmental variables properly configured for Maven, Java, WLS, etc. (MW_HOME, M2, etc.)

The Process

The steps involved in this post’s demonstration are as follows:

  1. Install the WebLogic Maven Plugin into the Oracle VM’s Maven Repositories, as well as the Development machine
  2. Create a new Maven Web Application Project in NetBeans
  3. Copy the classes from the Hello World project in the last post to new project
  4. Create a properties file to store Maven configuration values for the project
  5. Add the Maven Properties Plugin to the Project’s POM file
  6. Add the WebLogic Maven Plugin to project’s POM file
  7. Add JUnit tests and JUnit dependencies to project
  8. Add a WebLogic Descriptor to the project
  9. Enable Tunneling on the new WLS domain from the last post
  10. Build, test, and deploy the project locally in NetBeans
  11. Add project to Subversion
  12. Optional: Upgrade existing Hudson 2.2.0 and plugins on the Oracle VM latest 3.x version
  13. Create and configure new Hudson CI job for the project
  14. Build the Hudson job to compile, test, and deploy project to WLS

WebLogic Maven Plugin

First, we need to install the WebLogic Maven Plugin (‘weblogic-maven-plugin’) onto both the Development machine’s local Maven Repository and the Oracle VM’s Maven Repository. Installing the plugin will allow us to deploy our sample application from NetBeans and Hudson, using Maven. The weblogic-maven-plugin, a JAR file, is not part of the Maven repository by default. According to Oracle, ‘WebLogic Server provides support for Maven through the provisioning of plug-ins that enable you to perform various operations on WebLogic Server from within a Maven environment. As of this release, there are two separate plug-ins available.’ In this post, we will use the weblogic-maven-plugin, as opposed to the wls-maven-plugin. Again, according to Oracle, the weblogic-maven-plugin “delivered in WebLogic Server 11g Release 1, provides support for deployment operations.”

The best way to understand the plugin install process is by reading the Using the WebLogic Development Maven Plug-In section of the Oracle Fusion Middleware documentation on Developing Applications for Oracle WebLogic Server. It goes into detail on how to install and configure the plugin.

In a nutshell, below is a list of the commands I executed to install the weblogic-maven-plugin version 12.1.1.0 on both my Windows development machine and on my Oracle VM. If you do not have WebLogic Server installed on your development machine, and therefore no access to the plugin, install it into the Maven Repository on the Oracle VM first, then copy the jar file to the development machine and follow the normal install process from that point forward.

On Windows Development Machine:

Installing weblogic-maven-plugin onto Dev Maven Repository

Installing weblogic-maven-plugin on a Windows Machine

On the Oracle VM:

Installing WebLogic Maven Plugin into Oracle VM Maven Repository

Installing WebLogic Maven Plugin into the Oracle VM

To test the success of your plugin installation, you can run the following maven command on Windows or Linux:

mvn help:describe -Dplugin=com.oracle.weblogic:weblogic-maven-plugin

Sample Maven Web Application

Using NetBeans on your development machine, create a new Maven Web Application. For those of you familiar with Maven, the NetBeans’ Maven Web Application project is based on the ‘webapp-javaee6:1.5’ Archetype. NetBeans creates the project by executing a ‘archetype:generate’ Maven Goal. This is seen in the ‘Output’ tab after the project is created.

01a - Choose the Maven Web Application Project Type

1a – Choose the Maven Web Application Project Type

01b - Name and Location of New Project

1b – Name and Location of New Project

By default you may have Tomcat and GlassFish as installed options on your system. Unfortunately, NetBeans currently does not have the ability to configure a remote connection to the WLS instance running on the Oracle VM, as I understand. You do not need an instance of WLS installed on your development machine since we are going to use the copy on the Oracle VM. We will use Maven to deploy the project to WLS on the Oracle VM, later in the post.

01c - Default Server and Java Settings

1c – Default Server and Java Settings

1d - New Maven Project in NetBeans

1d – New Maven Project in NetBeans

Next, copy the two java class files from the previous blog post’s Hello World project to the new project’s source package. Alternately, download a zipped copy this post’s complete sample code from Dropbox or on GitHub.

02a - Copy Two Class Files from Previous Project

2a – Copy Two Class Files from Previous Project

Because we are copying a RESTful web service to our new project, NetBeans will prompt us for some REST resource configuration options. To keep this new example simple, choose the first option and uncheck the Jersey option.

02b - REST Resource Configuration

2b – REST Resource Configuration

02c - New Project with Files Copied from Previous Project

2c – New Project with Files Copied from Previous Project

JUnit Tests

Next, create a set of JUnit tests for each class by right-clicking on both classes and selecting ‘Tools’ -> ‘Create Tests’.

03a - Create JUnit Tests for Both Class Files

3a – Create JUnit Tests for Both Class Files

03b - Choose JUnit Version 4.x

3b – Choose JUnit Version 4.x

03c - New Project with Test Classes and JUnit Test Dependencies

3c – New Project with Test Classes and JUnit Test Dependencies

We will use the test classes and dependencies NetBeans just added to the project. However, we will not use the actual JUnit tests themselves that NetBeans created. To properly set-up the default JUnit tests to work with an embedded version of WLS is well beyond the scope of this post.

Overwrite the contents of the class file with the code provided from Dropbox. I have replaced the default JUnit tests with simpler versions for this demonstration. Build the file to make sure all the JUnit tests all pass.

03d - Project Successfully Built with New JUnit Tests

3d – Project Successfully Built with New JUnit Tests

Project Properties

Next, add a new Properties file to the project, entitled ‘maven.properties’.

04a - Add Properties File to Project

4a – Add Properties File to Project

04b - Add Properties File to Project

4b – Add Properties File to Project

Add the following key/value pairs to the properties file. These key/value pairs are referenced will be referenced the POM.xml by the weblogic-maven-plugin, added in the next step. Placing the configuration values into a Properties file is not necessary for this post. However, if you wish to deploy to multiple environments, moving environmentally-specific configurations into separate properties files, using Maven Build Profiles, and/or using frameworks such as Spring, are all best practices.

Java Properties File (maven.properties):

Maven Plugins and the POM File

Next, add the WLS Maven Plugin (‘weblogic-maven-plugin’) and the Maven Properties Plugin (‘properties-maven-plugin’) to the end of the project’s Maven POM.xml file. The Maven Properties Plugin, part of the Mojo Project, allows us to substitute configuration values in the Maven POM file from a properties file. According to codehaus,org, who hosts the Mojo Project, ‘It’s main use-case is loading properties from files instead of declaring them in pom.xml, something that comes in handy when dealing with different environments.’

Project Object Model File (pom.xml):

WebLogic Deployment Descriptor

A WebLogic Deployment Descriptor file is the last item we need to add to the new Maven Web Application project. NetBeans has descriptors for multiple servers, including Tomcat (context.xml), GlassFish (application.xml), and WebLogic (weblogic.xml). They provide a convenient location to store specific server properties, used during the deployment of the project.

06a - Add New WebLogic Descriptor

6a – Add New WebLogic Descriptor

06b - Add New WebLogic Descriptor

6b – Add New WebLogic Descriptor

Add the ‘context-root’ tag. The value will be the name of our project, ‘HelloWorldMaven’, as shown below. According to Oracle, “the context-root element defines the context root of this standalone Web application.” The context-root of the application will form part of the URL we enter to display our application, later.

06c - Add Context Root Element to Descriptor

6c – Add Context Root Element to Descriptor

Make sure to the WebLogic descriptor file (‘weblogic.xml’) is placed in the WEB-INF folder. If not, the descriptor’s properties will not be read. If the descriptor is not read, the context-root of the deployed application will default to the project’s WAR file’s name. Instead of ‘HelloWorldMaven’ as the context-root, you would see ‘HelloWorldMaven-1.0-SNAPSHOT’.

06d - Move WebLogic Descriptor into WEB-INF Folder

6d – Move WebLogic Descriptor into WEB-INF Folder

Enable Tunneling

Before we compile, test, and deploy our project, we need to make a small change to WLS. In order to deploy our project remotely to the Oracle VM’s WLS, using the WebLogic Maven Plugin, we must enable tunneling on our WLS domain. According to Oracle, the ‘Enable Tunneling’ option “Specifies whether tunneling for the T3, T3S, HTTP, HTTPS, IIOP, and IIOPS protocols should be enabled for this server.” To enable tunneling, from the WLS Administration Console, select the ‘AdminServer’ Server, ‘Protocols’ tab, ‘General’ sub-tab.

Enabling Tunneling on WLS for HTTP Deployments

Enabling Tunneling on WLS for HTTP Deployments

Build and Test the Project

Right-click and select ‘Build’, ‘Clean and Build’, or ‘Build with Dependencies’. NetBeans executes a ‘mvn install’ command. This command initiates a series of Maven Goals. The goals, visible NetBean’s Output window, include ‘dependency:copy’, ‘properties:read-project-properties’, ‘compiler:compile’, ‘surefire:test’, and so forth. They move the project’s code through the Maven Build Lifecycle. Most goals are self-explanatory by their title.

The last Maven Goal to execute, if the other goals have succeeded, is the ‘weblogic:deploy’ goal. This goal deploys the project to the Oracle VM’s WLS domain we configured in our project. Recall in the POM file, we configured the weblogic-maven-plugin to call the ‘deploy’ goal whenever ‘install’, referred to as Execution Phase by Maven, is executed. If all goals complete without error, you have just compiled, tested, and deployed your first Maven web application to a remote WLS domain. Later, we will have Hudson do it for us, automatically.

06e - Successful Build of Project

6e – Successful Build of Project

Executing Maven Goals in NetBeans

A small aside, if you wish to run alternate Maven goals in NetBeans, right-click on the project and select ‘Custom’ -> ‘Goals…’. Alternately, click on the lighter green arrows (‘Re-run with different parameters’), adjacent to the ‘Output’ tab.

For example, in the ‘Run Maven’ pop-up, replace ‘install’ with ‘surefire:test’ or simply ‘test’. This will compile the project and run the JUnit tests. There are many Maven goals that can be ran this way. Use the Control key and Space Bar key combination in the Maven Goals text box to display a pop-up list of available goals.

07a - Executing the Maven test Goal

7a – Executing Other Maven Goals

07a - JUnit Test Results using Maven test Goal

7a – JUnit Test Results using Maven ‘test’ Goal

Subversion

Now that our project is complete and tested, we will commit the project to Subversion (SVN). We will commit a copy of our source code to SVN, installed on the Oracle VM, for safe-keeping. Having our source code in SVN also allows Hudson to retrieve a copy. Hudson will then compile, test, and deploy the project to WLS.

The Repository URL, User, and Password are all supplied in the Oracle VM information, along with the other URLs and credentials.

08a - Add Project to Subversion Repository

8a – Add Project to Subversion Repository

08b - Subversion Repository Folder for Project

8b – Subversion Repository Folder for Project

When you import you project for the first time, you will see more files than are displayed below. I had already imported part of the project earlier while creating this post. Therefore most of my files were already managed by Subversion.

08c - List of Files Imported into Subversion

8c – List of Files Imported into Subversion (you will see more)

08d - Project Successfully Imported into Subversion

08d – Project Successfully Imported into Subversion

Upgrading Hudson CI Server

The Oracle VM comes with Hudson pre-installed in it’s own WLS domain, ‘hudson-ci_dev’, running on port 5001. Start the domain from within the VM by double-clicking the ‘WLS 12c – Hudson CI 5001’ icon on the desktop, or by executing the domain’s WLS start-up script from a terminal window:

/labs/wls1211/user_projects/domains/hudson-ci_dev/startWebLogic.sh

Once started, the WLS Administration Console 12c is accessible at the following URL. User your VM’s IP address or ‘localhost’ if you are within the VM.

http://[your_vm_ip_address]:5001/console/login/LoginForm.jsp

The Oracle VM comes loaded with Hudson version 2.2.0. I strongly suggest is updating Hudson to the latest version (3.0.1 at the time of this post). To upgrade, download, deploy, and started a new 3.0.1 version in the same domain on the same ‘AdminServer’ Server. I was able to do this remotely, from my development machine, using the browser-based Hudson Dashboard and WLS Administration Console. There is no need to do any of the installation from within the VM, itself.

When the upgrade is complete, stop the 2.2.0 deployment currently running in the WLS domain.

Hudson 3.0.1 Deployed to WLS Domain on VM

Hudson 3.0.1 Deployed to WLS Domain on VM

The new version of Hudson is accessible from the following URL (adjust the URL your exact version of Hudson):

http://[your_vm_ip_address]:5001/hudson-3.0.1/

It’s also important to update all the Hudson plugins. Hudson makes this easy with the Hudson Plugin Manager, accessible via the Manage Hudson’ option.

View of Hudson 3.0.1 Running on WLS with All Plugins Updated

View of Hudson 3.0.1 Running on WLS with All Plugins Updated

Note on the top of the Manage Hudson page, there is a warning about the server’s container not using UTF-8 to decode URLs. You can follow this post, if you want to resolve the issue by configuring Hudson differently. I did not worry about it for this post.

Building a Hudson Job

We are ready to configure Hudson to build, test, and deploy our Maven Web Application project. Return to the ‘Hudson Dashboard’, select ‘New Job’, and then ‘Build a new free-style software job’. This will open the ‘Job Configurations’ for the new job.

01 - Creating New Hudson Free-Style Software Job

1 – Creating New Hudson Free-Style Software Job

02 -Default Job Configurations

2 -Default Job Configurations

Start by configuring the ‘Source Code Management’ section. The Subversion Repository URL is the same as the one you used in NetBeans to commit the code. To avoid the access error seen below, you must provide the Subversion credentials to Hudson, just as you did in NetBeans.

03 -Subversion SCM Configuration

3 -Subversion SCM Configuration

04 - Subversion SCM Authentication

4 – Subversion SCM Authentication

05 -Subversion SCM Configuration Authenticated

5 -Subversion SCM Configuration Authenticated

Next, configure the Maven 3 Goals. I chose the ‘clean’ and ‘install’ goals. Using ‘clean’ insures the project is compiled each time by deleting the output of the build directory.

Optionally, you can configure Hudson to publish the JUnit test results as shown below. Be sure to save your configuration.

06 -Maven 3 and JUnit Configurations

6 -Maven 3 and JUnit Configurations

Start a build of the new Hudson Job, by clicking ‘Build Now’. If your Hudson job’s configurations are correct, and the new WLS domain is running, you should have a clean build. This means the project compiled without error, all tests passed, and the web application’s WAR file was deployed successfully to the new WLS domain within the Oracle VM.

07 -Job Built Successfully Using Configurations

7 -Job Built Successfully Using Configurations

08 - Test Results from Build

8 – Test Results from Build

WebLogic Server

To view the newly deployed Maven Web Application, log into the WebLogic Server Administration Console for the new domain. In my case, the new domain was running on port 7031, so the URL would be:

http://[your_vm_ip_address]:7031/console/login/LoginForm.jsp

You should see the deployment, in an ‘Active’ state, as shown below.

09a - HelloWorldMaven Deployed to WLS from Hudson Build

9a – Project Deployed to WLS from Hudson Build

09b - Project Context Root Set by WebLogic Descriptor File

9b – Project’s Context Root Set by WebLogic Descriptor File

09c - Projects Servlet Path Set by web.xml File

9c – Project’s Servlet Paths

To test the deployment, open a new browser tab and go to the URL of the Servlet. In this case the URL would be:

http://[your_vm_ip_address]:7031/HelloWorldMaven/resources/helloWorld

You should see the original phrase from the previous project displayed, ‘Hello WebLogic Server!’.

10 - HelloWorldMaven Web Application Running in Browser

10 – Project’s Web Application Running in Browser

To further test the system, make a simple change to the project in NetBeans. I changed the name variable’s default value from ‘WebLogic Server’ to ‘Hudson, Maven, and WLS’. Commit the change to SVN.

11 - Make a Code Change to Project and Commit to Subversion

11 – Make a Code Change to Project and Commit to Subversion

Return to Hudson and run a new build of the job.

12 - Rebuild Project with Changes in Hudson

12 – Rebuild Project with Changes in Hudson

After the build completes, refresh the sample Web Application’s browser window. You should see the new text string displayed. Your code change was just re-compiled, re-tested, and re-deployed by Hudson.

13 - HelloWorldMaven Deployed to WLS Showing Code Change

13 – Project Showing Code Change

True Continuous Deployment

Although Hudson is now doing a lot of the work for us, the system still is not fully automated. We are still manually building our Hudson Job, in order to deploy our application. If you want true continuous integration and deployment, you need to trust the system to automatically deploy the project, based on certain criteria.

SCM polling with Hudson is one way to demonstrate continuous deployment. In ‘Job Configurations’, turn on ‘Poll SCM’ and enter Unix cron-like value(s) in the ‘Schedule’ text box. In the example below, I have indicated a polling frequency every hour (‘@hourly’). Every hour, Hudson will look for committed changes to the project in Subversion. If changes are found, Hudson w retrieves the source code, compiles, and tests. If the project compiles and passes all tests, it is deployed to WLS.

SCM Polling Interval

SCM Polling Interval

There are less resource-intense methods to react to changes than SCM polling. Push-notifications from the repository is alternate, more preferable method.

Additionally, you should configure messaging in Hudson to notify team members of new deployments and the changes they contain. You should also implement a good deployment versioning strategy, for tracking purposes. Knowing the version of deployed artifacts is critical for accurate change management and defect tracking.

Helpful Links

Maven Plug-In Goals

Maven Build Lifecycle

Configuring and Using the WebLogic Maven Plug-In for Deployment

Jenkins: Building a Software Project

Kohsuke Kawaguchi: Polling must die: triggering Jenkins builds from a git hook

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Deploying Applications to WebLogic Server on Oracle’s Pre-Built Development VM

Create a new WebLogic Server domain on Oracle’s Pre-built Development VM. Remotely deploy a sample web application to the domain from a remote machine.

Post Introduction Image

Introduction

In my last two posts, Using Oracle’s Pre-Built Enterprise Java VM for Development Testing and Resizing Oracle’s Pre-Built Development Virtual Machines, I introduced Oracle’s Pre-Built Enterprise Java Development VM, aka a ‘virtual appliance’. Oracle has provided ready-made VMs that would take a team of IT professionals days to assemble. The Oracle Linux 5 OS-based VM has almost everything that comprises basic enterprise test and production environment based on the Oracle/Java technology stack. The VM includes Java JDK 1.6+, WebLogic Server, Coherence, TopLink, Subversion, Hudson, Maven, NetBeans, Enterprise Pack for Eclipse, and so forth.

One of the first things you will probably want to do, once your Oracle’s Pre-Built Enterprise Java Development VM is up and running, is deploy an application to WebLogic Server. According to Oracle, WebLogic Server is ‘a scalable, enterprise-ready Java Platform, Enterprise Edition (Java EE) application server.’ Even if you haven’t used WebLogic Server before, don’t worry, Oracle has designed it to be easy to get started.

In this post I will cover creating a new WebLogic Server (WLS) domain, and the deployment a simple application to WLS from a remote development machine. The major steps in the process presented in this post are as follows:

  • Create a new WLS domain
  • Create and build a sample application
  • Deploy the sample application to the new WLS domain
  • Access deployed application via a web browser

Networking

First, let me review how I have my VM configured for networking, so you will understand my deployment methodology, discussed later. The way you configure your Oracle VM VirtualBox appliance will depend on your network topology. Again, keeping it simple for this post, I have given the Oracle VM a static IP address (192.168.1.88). The machine on which I am hosting VirtualBox uses DHCP to obtain an IP address on the same local wireless network.

For the VM’s VirtualBox networking mode, I have chosen the ‘Bridged Adapter‘ mode. Using this mode, any machine on the network can access the VM through the host machine, via the VM’s IP address. One of the best posts I have read on VM networking is on Oracle’s The Fat Bloke Sings blog, here.

Setting Static IP Address for VM

Setting Static IP Address for VM

Using VirtualBox's Bridged Adapter Networking Mode

Using VirtualBox’s Bridged Adapter Networking Mode

Creating New WLS Domain

A domain, according Oracle, is ‘the basic administrative unit of WebLogic Server. It consists of one or more WebLogic Server instances, and logically related resources and services that are managed, collectively, as one unit.’ Although the Oracle Development VM comes with pre-existing domains, we will create our own for this post.

To create the new domain, we will use the Oracle’s Fusion Middleware Configuration Wizard. The Wizard will take you through a step-by-step process to configure your new domain. To start the wizard, from within the Oracle VM, open a terminal window, and use the following command to switch to the Wizard’s home directory and start the application.

/labs/wls1211/wlserver_12.1/common/bin/config.sh

There are a lot of configuration options available, using the Wizard. I have selected some basic settings, shown below, to configure the new domain. Feel free to change the settings as you step through the Wizard, to meet your own needs. Make sure to use the ‘Development Mode’ Start Mode Option for this post. Also, make sure to note the admin port of the domain, the domain’s location, and the username and password you choose.

Creating the New Domain

Creating the New Domain

Starting the Domain

To start the new domain, open a terminal window in the VM and run the following command to change to the root directory of the new domain and start the WLS domain instance. Your domain path and domain name may be different. The start script command will bring up a new terminal window, showing you the domain starting.

/labs/wls1211/user_projects/domains/blogdev_domain/startWebLogic.sh
New WLS Domain Starting

New WLS Domain Starting

WLS Administration Console

Once the domain starts, test it by opening a web browser from the host machine and entering the URL of the WLS Administration Console. If your networking is set-up correctly, the host machine will able to connect to the VM and open the domain, running on the port you indicated when creating the domain, on the static IP address of the VM. If your IP address and port are different, make sure to change the URL. To log into WLS Administration Console, use the username and password you chose when you created the domain.

http://192.168.1.88:7031/console/login/LoginForm.jsp
Logging into the New WLS Domain

Logging into the New WLS Domain

Before we start looking around the new domain however, let’s install an application into it.

Sample Java Application

If you have an existing application you want to install, you can skip this part. If you don’t, we will quickly create a simple Java EE Hello World web application, using a pre-existing sample project in NetBeans – no coding required. From your development machine, create a new Samples -> Web Services -> REST: Hello World (Java EE 6) Project. You now have a web project containing a simple RESTful web service, Servlet, and Java Server Page (.jsp). Build the project in NetBeans. We will upload the resulting .war file manually, in the next step.

In a previous post, Automated Deployment to GlassFish Using Jenkins CI Server and Apache Ant, we used the same sample web application to demonstrate automated deployments to Oracle’s GlassFish application server.

Creating the Sample Java EE 6 Application in NetBeans

Creating the Sample Java EE 6 Web Application in NetBeans

Naming the New Project

Naming the New Project

New Project in NetBeans

New Project in NetBeans

Hello World WAR File After Building Project

Hello World WAR File After Building Project

Deploying the Application

There are several methods to deploy applications to WLS, depending on your development workflow. For this post, we will keep it simple. We will manually deploy our web application’s .war file to WLS using the browser-based WLS Administration Console. In a future post, we will use Hudson, also included on the VM, to build and deploy an application, but for now we will do it ourselves.

To deploy the application, switch back to the WLS Administration Console. Following the screen grabs below, you will select the .war file, built from the above web application, and upload it to the Oracle VM’s new WLS domain. The .war file has all the necessary files, including the RESTful web service, Servlet, and the .jsp page. Make sure to deploy it as an ‘application’ as opposed to a ‘library’ (see ‘target style’ configuration screen, below).

Select the Deployment Tab Lists All Deployed Applications

Select the Deployment Tab Lists All Deployed Applications

Select Install to Start the Installation Process

Select Install to Start the Installation Process

Select Next then Browse for .war File

Select Next then Browse for .war File

Select Next Again to Install the Application

Select Next Again to Install the Application

Install the Deployment as an Application

Install the Deployment as an Application

The Default Settings Are Fine for Application

The Default Settings Are Fine for Application

Select Finish to Complete the Installation

Select Finish to Complete the Installation

The Overview Tab Reviews the Installed Application's Configuration

The Overview Tab Reviews the Installed Application’s Configuration

Switch Back to the Deployments Tab to See the Installed Application

Switch Back to the Deployments Tab to See the Installed Application

Click on the Application and Select the Testing Tab

Click on the Application and Select the Testing Tab

Accessing the Application

Now that we have deployed the Hello World application, we will access it from our browser. From any machine on the same network, point a browser to the following URL. Adjust your URL if your VM’s IP address and domain’s port is different.

http://192.168.1.88:7031/HelloWebLogicServer/resources/helloWorld
Hello World Application Running from WLS Domain

Hello World Application Running from WLS Domain

The Hello World RESTful web service’s Web Application Description Language (WADL) description can be viewed at:

http://192.168.1.88:7031/HelloWebLogicServer/resources/application.wadl
RESTful Web Service's WADL

RESTful Web Service’s WADL

Since the Oracle VM is accessible from anywhere on the network, the deployed application is also accessible from any device on the network, as demonstrated below.

Hello World Application Running from WLS Domain on iPhone

Hello World Application Running from WLS Domain on iPhone

Conclusion

This was a simple demonstration of deploying an application to WebLogic Server on Oracle’s Pre-Built Enterprise Java Development VM. WebLogic Server is a powerful, feature-rich Java application server. Once you understand how to configure and administer WLS, you can deploy more complex applications. In future posts we will show a more common, slightly more complex example of automated deployment from Hudson. In addition, we will show how to create a datasource in WLS and access it from the deployed application, to talk to a relational database.

Helpful Links

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Resizing Oracle’s Pre-Built Development Virtual Machines

Expand the size of Oracle’s Pre-Built Development VM’s (virtual appliances) to accommodate software package updates and additional software installations.

Introduction

In my last post, Using Oracle’s Pre-Built Enterprise Java VM for Development Testing, I discussed issues with the small footprint of the VM. Oracle’s Pre-Built Enterprise Java Development VM, aka virtual appliance, is comprised of (2) 8 GB Virtual Machine Disks (VMDK). The small size of the VM made it impossible to update the system software, or install new applications. After much trial and error, and a few late nights reading posts by others who had run into this problem, I found a fairly easy series of steps to increase the size of the VM. In the following example, I’ll demonstrate how to resize the VM’s virtual disks to 15 GB each; you can resize the disks to whatever size you need.

Terminology

Before we start, a few quick terms. It’s not critical to have a complete understanding of Linux’s Logical Volume Manager (LVM). However, without some basic knowledge of how Linux manages virtual disks and physical storage, the following process might seem a bit confusing. I pulled the definitions directly from Wikipedia and LVM How-To.

  • Logical Volume Manager (LVM) – LVM is a logical volume manager for the Linux kernel; it manages disk drivers and similar mass-storage devices.
  • Volume Group (VG) – Highest level abstraction within the LVM. Gathers Logical Volumes (LV) and Physical Volumes (PV) into one administrative unit.
  • Physical Volume (PV) – Typically a hard disk, or any device that ‘looks’ like a hard disk (eg. a software raid device).
  • Logical Volume (LV) – Equivalent of disk partition in a non-LVM system. Visible as a standard block device; as such the LV can contain a file system (eg. /home).
  • Logical Extents (LE) – Each LV is split into chunks of data, known as logical extents. The extent size is the same for all logical volumes in the volume group. The system pools LEs into a VG. The pooled LEs can then be concatenated together into virtual disk partitions (LV).
  • Virtual Machine Disk (VMDK) – Container for virtual hard disk drives used in virtual machines. Developed by VMware for its virtual appliance products, but is now an open format.
  • Virtual Disk Image (VDI) – VirtualBox-specific container format for storing files on the host operating system.

Ten Simple Steps

After having downloaded, assembled, and imported the original virtual appliance into VirtualBox Manager on my Windows computer, I followed the these simple steps to enlarge the size of the VM’s (2) 8 GB VMDK files:

  1. Locate the VM’s virtual disk images;
  2. Clone VMDK files to VDI files;
  3. Resize VDI files;
  4. Replace VM’s original VMDK files;
  5. Boot VM using GParted Live;
  6. Resize VDI partitions;
  7. Resize Logical Volume (LV);
  8. Resize file system;
  9. Restart the VM;
  10. Delete the original VMDK files.
Original VM in VirtualBox Manager Before Resizing

Original VM in VirtualBox Manager Before Resizing

Original View of VM Before Resizing and Software Updates

Original View of VM Before Resizing and Software Updates

1. Locate the VM’s virtual disk images

  • From the Windows command line, run the following command to find information about virtual disk images currently in use by VirtualBox.
  • Locate the (2) VMDK images associated with the VM you are going to resize.
cd C:\Program Files\Oracle\VirtualBox
VBoxManage list hdds
Two Virtual Disk Images in use by VM

Two Virtual Disk Images in use by VM

2. Clone the (2) VMDK files to VDI files (substitute your own file paths and VMDK file names)

VBoxManage clonehd "C:\Users\your_username\VirtualBox VMs\VDD_WLS_labs_2012\VDD_WLS_labs_2012-disk1.vmdk" "C:\Users\your_username\VirtualBox VMs\VDD_WLS_labs_2012\VDD_WLS_labs_2012-disk1_ext.vdi" --format vdi
VBoxManage clonehd "C:\Users\your_username\VirtualBox VMs\VDD_WLS_labs_2012\VDD_WLS_labs_2012-disk2.vmdk" "C:\Users\your_username\VirtualBox VMs\VDD_WLS_labs_2012\VDD_WLS_labs_2012-disk2_ext.vdi" --format vdi

3. Resize the (2) VDI files

To calculate the new size, multiple the number of gigabytes you want to end up with by 1,024 (ie. 15 x 1,024 = 15,360)

VBoxManage modifyhd "C:\Users\your_username\VirtualBox VMs\VDD_WLS_labs_2012\VDD_WLS_labs_2012-disk1_ext.vdi" --resize 15360
VBoxManage modifyhd "C:\Users\your_username\VirtualBox VMs\VDD_WLS_labs_2012\VDD_WLS_labs_2012-disk2_ext.vdi" --resize 15360

4. Replace the VM’s original VMDK files with the VDI files

  • Using VirtualBox Manger -> Settings -> Storage, replace the (2) original VMDK files with the new VDI files.
  • Keep the Attributes -> Hard Disk set to the same SATA Port 0 and SATA Port 1 of the original VMDK files.
VirtualBox Manager Showing VM with Larger Disks and GParted Live ISO

VirtualBox Manager Showing VM with Larger Disks and GParted Live ISO

5. Boot VM using the GParted Live ISO image

  • Download GParted Live ISO image to the host system (Windows).
  • Mount the GParted ISO (Devices -> CD/DVD Devices -> Chose a virtual CD/DVD disk file…).
  • Start the VM, hit f12 as VM boots up, and select CD/DVD (option c).
  • Answer a few questions for GParted to boot up properly.

Booting into GParted Live ISO 0

Booting into GParted Live ISO 1

Booting into GParted Live ISO 2

Booting into GParted Live ISO 3

Booting into GParted Live ISO 4

6. Using GParted, resize the (2) VDI partitions

  • Expand the ‘/dev/sda2’ and ‘/dev/sdb1’ partitions to use all unallocated space (in gray below).

Expanding Partition of New VM Disk 07

Expanding Partition of New VM Disk 06

Expanding Partition of New VM Disk 05

7. Resize Logical Volume (LV)

  • Using the Terminal, resize the Logical Volume to the new size of the VDI (‘/dev/sda’).
lvresize -L +7GB /dev/VolGroup00/LogVol00

Resizing the Logical Volume

8. Resize file system

  • Using the Terminal, resize the file system to match Logical Volume size.
resize2fs -p /dev/mapper/VolGroup00-LogVol00

9. Restart the VM

  • Restart the VM, hit f12 as it’s booting up, and select ‘1) Hard disk’ as the boot device.
  • Open the Terminal and enter ‘df -hT’ to confirm your results.
  • You can now safely install YUM Server configuration to update software packages, and install new applications.
Final View of VM After Resizing and Software Updates

Final View of VM After Resizing and Software Updates

10. Delete the original VMDK files

  • Once you sure everything worked, don’t forget to delete the original VMDK files. They are taking up 16 GB of disk space.

Links

Here are links to the two posts where I found most of the above information:

  1. How to resize a VirtualBox vmdk file
  2. LVM Resizing Guide – Grow File System

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Using Oracle’s Pre-Built Enterprise Java VM for Development Testing

Install and configure Oracle’s Pre-Built Enterprise Java Development VM, with Oracle Linux 5, to create quick, full-featured development test environments. 

Login Splash Screen for VM

Virtual Machines for Software Developers

As software engineers, we spend a great deal of time configuring our development machines to simulate test and production environments in which our code will eventually run. With the Microsoft/.NET technology stack, that most often means installing and configuring .NET, IIS, and SQL Server. With the Oracle/Java technology stack – Java, WebLogic or GlassFish Application Server, and Oracle 11g.

Within the last few years, the growth of virtual machines (VMs) within IT/IS organizations has exploded. According to Wikipedia, a virtual machine (VM), is ‘a software implementation of a machine (i.e. a computer) that executes programs like a physical machine.’ Rapid and inexpensive virtualization of business infrastructure using VMs has led to the exponential growth of private and public cloud platforms.

Instead of attempting to configure development machines to simulate the test and production environments, which are simultaneously running development applications and often personal programs, software engineers can leverage VMs in the same way as IT/IS organizations. Free, open-source virtualization software products from Oracle and VMware offer developers the ability to easily ‘spin-up’ fresh environments to compile, deploy, and test code. Code is tested in a pristine environment, closely configured to match production, without the overhead and baggage of  day-to-day development. When testing is complete, the VM is simply deleted and a new copy re-deployed for the next project.

Oracle Pre-Built Virtual Appliances

I’ve worked with a number of virtualization products, based on various Windows and Linux operating systems. Not matter the product or OS, the VM still needs to be set up just like any other new computer system, with software and configuration. However, recently I began using Oracle’s pre-built developer VMs. Oracle offers a number of pre-built VMs for various purposes, including database development, enterprise Java development, business intelligence, application hosting, SOA development, and even PHP development. The VMs, called virtual appliances,  are Open Virtualization Format Archive files, built to work with Oracle VM VirtualBox. Simply import the appliance into VirtualBox and start it up.

Oracle has provided ready-made VMs that would take even the most experienced team of IT professionals days to download, install, configure, and integrate. All the configuration details, user accounts information, instructions for use, and even pre-loaded tutorials, are provided. Oracle notes on their site that these VMs are not intended for use in production. However, the VMs are more than robust enough to use as a development test environment.

Because of its similarity to my production environment, I the installed the Enterprise Java Development VM on a Windows 7 Enterprise-based development computer. The Oracle Linux 5 OS-based VM has almost everything that comprises basic enterprise test and production environment based on the Oracle/Java technology stack. The VM includes an application server, source control server, build automation server, Java SDK, two popular IDE’s, and related components. The VM includes Java JDK 1.6+, WebLogic Server, Coherence, TopLink, Subversion, Hudson, Maven, NetBeans, Enterprise Pack for Eclipse, and so forth.

Aside from a database server, the environment has everything most developers might need to develop, build, store, and host their code. If you need a database, as most of us do, you can install it into the VM, or better yet, implement the Database App Development VM, in parallel. The Database VM contains Oracle’s 11g Release 2 enterprise-level relational database, along with several related database development and management tools. Using a persistence layer (data access layer), built with the included EclipseLink, you can connect the Enterprise appliance to the database appliance.

View of Oracle WebLogic 12c Running within VM

View of Oracle WebLogic 12c Running within VM

Set-Up Process

I followed the following steps to setup my VM:

  1. Update (or download and install) Oracle VM VirtualBox to the latest release.
  2. Download (6) Open Virtualization Format Archive (OVF/.ova) files.
  3. Download script to combine the .ova files.
  4. Execute script to assemble (6) .ova files into single. ova file.
  5. Import the appliance (combined .ova file) into VirtualBox.
  6. Optional: Clone and resize the appliance’s (2) virtual machines disks (see note below).
  7. Optional: Add the Yum Server configuration to the VM to enable normal software updates (see instructions below).
  8. Change any necessary settings within VM: date/time, timezone, etc.
  9. Install and/or update system software and development applications within VM: Java 1.7, etc.
View of Final OVF File Ready for Import

View of Combined OVF File Ready for Import into VirtualBox

View of Oracle VM VirtualBox Manager for Windows

View of Appliance within Oracle VM VirtualBox Manager for Windows

View of Pre-Built VM Running on Oracle VM VirtualBox

View of Pre-Built VM Running on Oracle VM VirtualBox Prior to Software Updates

Issue with Small Footprint of VM

The small size of the of pre-built VM is major issue I ran into almost immediately. Note in the screen grab above of VirtualBox, the Oracle VM only has (2) 8 GB virtual machine disks (.vmdk). Although Oracle designed the VMs to have a small footprint, it was so small that I quickly filled  up its primary partition. At that point, the VM was too full to apply the even the normal system updates. I switched the cache location for yum to a different partition, but then ran out of space again when yum tried to apply the updates it had downloaded to the primary partition.

Lack of disk space was a complete show-stopper for me until I researched a fix. Unfortunately, VirtualBox’s ‘VBoxManage modifyhd –resize’ command is not yet compatible with the virtual machine disk (.vmdk) format. After much trial and error, and a few late nights reading posts by others who had run into this problem, I found a fairly easy series of steps to enlarge the size of the VM. It doesn’t require you to be a complete ‘Linux Geek’, and only takes about 30 minutes of copying and restarting the VM a few times. I will included the instructions in this separate, upcoming post.

Expanded VM Disks in New Copy of Appliance

Expanded VM Disks in New Copy of Appliance

Issue with Package Updater

While solving the VM’s disk space issue, I also discoverer the VM’s Enterprise Linux System was setup with something called the Unbreakable Linux Network (ULN) Update Agent. From what I understood, without a service agreement with Oracle, I could not update the VM’s software using the standard Package Updater. However, a few quick commands I found on the Yum Server site, overcame that limitation and allowed me to update the VM’s software. Just follow the simple instructions here, for Oracle Linux 5. There are several hundred updates that will be applied, including an upgrade of Oracle Linux from 5.5 to 5.9.

Software Updates Now Working Using Yum Server

Software Updates Now Working Using Yum Server Repo

Issue with Java Updates

Along with the software updates, I ran into an issue installing the latest version of Java. I attempted to install the standard Oracle package that contained the latest Java JDK, JRE, and NetBeans for Linux. Upon starting the install script, I immediately received a ‘SELinux AVC denial’ message. This security measure halted my installation with the following error: ‘The java application attempted to load /labs/java/jre1.7.0_21/lib/i386/client/libjvm.so which requires text relocation. This is a potential security problem.

To get around the SELinux AVC denial issue, I installed the JRE, JDK, and NetBeans separately. Although this took longer and required a number of steps, it allowed me to get around the security and install the latest version of Java.

Note I later discovered that I could have simply changed the SELinux Security Level to ‘Permissive’ in the SELinux Security and Firewall, part of the Administrative Preferences. This would have allowed the original Oracle package containing the JDK, JRE, and NetBeans, to run.

Changing the SELinux Security Level to Allow Installation of Java and NetBeans

Changing the SELinux Security Level to Allow Installation of Java and NetBeans

Links

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Java RESTful Web Services Using MySQL Server, EclipseLink, and Jersey

Demonstrates the development of Java RESTful Web Services using MySQL Server, EclipseLink (JPA) and Jersey (JAX-RS). Built using NetBeans and hosted on GlassFish. Both the Java Library and RESTful Service NetBeans’ projects, demonstrated in this post, are now available on GitHub.
 
MySQL Diagram

Introduction

When implementing a Relational Database Management System (RDBMS), many enterprise software developers tend to favor Oracle 11g or Microsoft SQL Server relational databases, depending on their technology stack. However, there are several excellent alternative relational databases, including MySQL. In fact, MySQL is the world’s most popular open source database software, according to Oracle.

MySQL is available on over 20 platforms and operating systems including Linux, Unix, Mac and Windows, according to the MySQL website. Like Oracle and Microsoft’s flagship RDBMS, MySQL Server comes in at least four flavors, ranging from the free Community Edition, demonstrated here, to a full-featured, enterprise-level Cluster Carrier Grade Edition. Support for MySQL, like Oracle and Microsoft, extends beyond just technical support. MySQL provides JDBC, ODBC, .NET drivers for Java and .NET development, as well as other languages. MySQL is supported by many popular IDE’s, including MySQL’s own RDBMS IDE, MySQL Workbench. Lastly, like Oracle and Microsoft, MySQL provides extensive documentation, tutorials, and even sample databases, built using recommended architectural patterns.

In this post, we will use JDBC to map JPA entity classes to tables and views within a MySQL database. We will then build RESTful web services, EJB classes, which communicate with MySQL through the entities. We will separate the JPA entities into a Java Class Library. The class library will be referenced by the RESTful web services. The RESTful web services, part of a Java Web Application, will be deployed to GlassFish, where they are accessed with HTTP methods and tested.

Installation and Configuration

If you’ve worked with Microsoft SQL Server or particularly Oracle 11g, you’ll have a minimal learning curve with MySQL. Basic installation, configuration, and integration within your Java applications is like Oracle and Microsoft. Start by downloading and installing the latest versions of MySQL Server, MySQL Workbench, MySQL JDBC Connector/J Driver, and MySQL Sakila sample database. If on Linux, you could use the command line, or a native application management application, like Synaptic Package Manager, to perform most of the installations. To get the latest software and installation and configuration recommendations, I prefer to download and install them myself from the MySQL web site. All links are included at the end of this post.

For reference when following this post, I have installed MySQL Server 5.5.x on 64-bit Ubuntu 12.10 LTS, running within a Windows version of Oracle VM VirtualBox. I will be using the latest Linux version of NetBeans IDE 7.3 to develop the demonstration project. I will host the project on Oracle’s GlassFish Open Source Application Server 3.1.2.2, running on Ubuntu. Lastly, I will be referring to the latest JDK 1.7, in NetBeans, for the project.

MySQL Demo User Account

Once MySQL is installed and running, I suggest adding a new MySQL demo user account, to the Sakila database for this demonstration, using MySQL Workbench. For security, you should limit the user account to just those permissions necessary for this demonstration, as detailed in the following screen-grabs. You can also add the user from the command line, if you are familiar with administering MySQL in that way.

MySQL Workbench IDE

MySQL Workbench IDE

Configuring Demo User Login

Configuring Demo User Login

Configuring Demo User Administrative Roles

Configuring Demo User Administrative Roles

Configuring Demo User Account Limits

Configuring Demo User Account Limits

Configuring Demo User Schema Privileges

Configuring Demo User Schema Privileges

New MySQL Database Connection

To begin development in NetBeans, first create a new JDBC database connection to the MySQL Sakila database. In the Services tab, right-click on the Databases item and select New Connection… Use the new demo user account for the connection.

Note in the first screen-grab below, that instead of using the default NetBeans JDBC MySQL Connector/J driver version, I have downloaded and replaced it with the most current version, 5.1.24. This is not necessary, but I like to use the latest drivers to avoid problems.

New Connection Wizard - MySQL Driver

Locating the Driver in the New Connection Wizard

Make sure to test your connection before finishing, using the ‘Test’ button. It’s frustrating to track down database connection issues once you start coding and testing.

New Connection Wizard - Customize Connection

Customize the Connection in the New Connection Wizard

New Connection Wizard - Database Schema

Sakila Database Doesn’t Contain Additional Schema

Choosing a Name for the Connection

Choosing a Name for the Connection

New Database Connection for demoUser

New Database Connection for MySQL Sakila Database

New Java Class Library

Similar to an earlier post, create new Java Class Library project in NetBeans. Select New Project -> Java -> Java Class Library. This library will eventually contain the JPA entity classes, mapped to tables and views in the MySQL Sakila database. Following standard n-tier design principles, I prefer separate the data access layer (DAL) from the service layer. You can then reuse the data access layer for other types of data-consumers, such as SOAP-based services.

Create New Java Class Library Project

Create New Java Class Library Project

Naming New Java Class Library

Naming New Java Class Library

Entity Classes from Database

Next, we will add entity classes to our project, mapped to several of the MySQL Sakila database’s tables and views. Right-click on the project and select New -> Entity Classes from Database… In the next window, choose the database connection we made before. NetBeans will then load all the available tables and views from the Sakila database. Next, select ‘actor_info(view)’, ‘film_actor’, and ‘film_list(view)’. Three related tables will also be added automatically by NetBeans. Not the warning at the bottom of the window about the need to specify Entity IDs. We will address this next.

Choosing Database Tables and Views

Choosing Database Tables and Views

Entity Class Options

Entity Class Options

Entity Mapping Options

Entity Mapping Options

When selecting ‘Entity Classes from Database…’, NetBeans adds the ‘EclipseLink (JPA 2.0)’ global library to the project. This library contains three jars, including EclipseLink 2.3.x, Java Persistence API (JPA) 2.0.x, and state model API for JPQL queries. There is a newer EclipseLink 2.4.x library available from their web site.  The 2.4.x version has many new features. You can download and replace NetBeans’ EclipseLink (JPA 2.0) library by creating a new EclipseLink 2.4.x library, if you want to give its new features, like JPA-RS, a try. It is not necessary for this demonstration, however.

New Java Class Project with Entities

Java Class Project with JPA Entity Classes

Adding Entity IDs to Views

To eliminate warnings displayed when we built the entities, Entity ID’s must be designated for the two database views we selected, ‘actor_info(view)’ and ‘film_list(view)’. Database views (virtual tables), do not have a primary key defined, which NetBeans requires for the entity classes. NetBeans will guide you through adding the ID, if you click on the error icon shown below.

Adding Id to ActorInfo Entity

Adding and Entity ID to ActorInfo Entity

Id Added to Entity Class

Entity ID Added to Entity Class

ActorInfo.java Entity Class contents:

New Java Web Application

Next, we will create the RESTful Web Services. Each service will be mapped to one of the corresponding JPA entity we just created in the Java class library project. Select New Project -> Java Web -> Web Application.

New Web Application Project

New Web Application Project

Naming New Web Application

Naming New Web Application

Configuring Server and Settings

Configuring Server and Settings

Configuring Frameworks

Configuring Frameworks

New Java Web Application Project

New Java Web Application Project

RESTful Web Services from Entity Classes

Before we will build the RESTful web services, we need to add a reference to the previous Java class library project, containing the JPA entity classes. In the Java web application’s properties dialog window, under Categories -> Libraries -> Compile, add a link to the Java class library project’s .jar file.

Adding MySQL Entity Class Library

Adding MySQL Entity Class Library

Next, right-click on the project and select New -> RESTful Web Services from Entity Classes…

Adding RESTful Web Service from Entities

Adding RESTful Web Service from Entity Classes

In the preceding dialogue window, add all the ‘Available Entity Classes’ to the ‘Selected Entity Classes’ column.

Choosing Entity Classes

Choosing Entity Classes

Chosen Entity Classes

Chosen Entity Classes

After clicking next, you will prompted to configure the Persistence Unit and the Persistence Unit’s Data Source. Please refer to my earlier post for more information on the Persistence Unit. This data source will also be used by GlassFish, once the project is deployed, to connect to the Sakila MySQL database. The Persistence Unit will use the JNDI name to reference the data source.

Creating Data Source for Persistence Unit

Creating Data Source for Persistence Unit

Creating Data Source and JNDI Name

Creating Data Source and JNDI Name

Creating Persistence Unit

Creating Persistence Unit

Persistence Unit (persistence.xml) contents:

Generating Classes Using Jersey Options

Generating Classes Using Jersey Options

New Java Web Application with RESTful Web Services

Java Web Application with RESTful Web Services

As part of constructing the RESTful Web Services, notice NetBeans has added several Jersey (JAX-RS) libraries to the project. These libraries also reference Jackson (JSON Processor), Jettison (JSON StAX), MOXy (JAXB), and Grizzly (NIO) APIs.

Libraries Loaded by NetBeans to Java Web Application

Libraries Loaded by NetBeans to Java Web Application

Creating RESTful Web Services Test

Finally, we will test the RESTful Web Services, and indirectly the underlying entity classes mapped to the MySQL Sakila database. NetBeans makes this easy. To begin, right-click on the ‘RESTful Web Services’ folder in the Java web application project and select ‘Test RESTful Web Services’. NetBeans will automatically generate all the necessary files and links to test each of the RESTful web services’ operations.

As part of creating the tests, NetBeans will deploy the web application to GlassFish. When configuring the tests in the ‘Configure REST Test Client’ dialog window, make sure to use the second option, ‘Web Test Client in Project’. The first option only works with Microsoft’s Internet Explorer, an odd choice for a Java-based application running on Linux.

Configuring the REST Test Client

Configuring the REST Test Client

Highlighted below in red are the components NetBeans will install on the GlassFish application server. They include the RESTful web services application, a .war file. Each of the RESTful web service are Stateless Session Beans, installed as part of the application. In deployment also includes a JDBC Resource and a JDBC Connection Pool, which connects the application to the MySQL Sakila database. The Resource is automatically associated with the Connection Pool.

RESTful Web Services Deployed to GlassFish Server

RESTful Web Services Deployed to GlassFish Server

After creating the necessary files and deploying the application, NetBeans will open a web browser. allowing you can test the services. Each of the RESTful web services is available to test by clicking on the links in the left-hand navigation menu. NetBeans has generated a few default operations, including ‘{id}’, ‘{from/to}’, and ‘count’, each mapped to separate methods in the service classes. Also notice you can choose to display the results of the service calls in multiple formats, including XML, JSON, and plain text.

Testing RESTful Web Services from NetBeans

Testing RESTful Web Services from NetBeans Using Chrome

We can also test the RESTful Web Services by calling the service URLs, directly. Below, is the results of a my call to the Actor service’s URL, from a separate Windows client machine.

Calling the RESTful Web Services Directly

Calling the RESTful Web Services Directly

You can also use applications like Fiddler, cURL, Firefox with Firebug, and Google Chrome’s Advanced REST Client and REST Console to test the services. Below, I used Fiddler to call the Actor service, again. Note the response contains a JSON payload, not XML. With Jersey, you can request and receive JSON from the services without additional programming.

Fiddler2 Request Example

Fiddler2 Request Example

Conclusion

Using these services, you can build any number of server-side and client-side data-driven applications. The service layer is platform agnostic, accessible from any web-browser, mobile device, or native desktop application, on Windows, Linux, and Apple.

Links

MySQL Server: http://www.mysql.com/downloads/mysql

MySQL Connector/J JDBC driver for MySQL: http://dev.mysql.com/downloads/connector/j

MySQL Workbench: http://www.mysql.com/downloads/workbench

MySQL Sakila Sample Database: http://dev.mysql.com/doc/sakila/en/sakila-installation.html

NetBeans IDE: http://www.netbeans.org

EclipseLink: http://projects.eclipse.org/projects/rt.eclipselink

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Instant Oracle Database and PowerShell How-to Book

Recently, I finished reading Geoffrey Hudik‘s Instant Oracle Database and PowerShell How-to ebook, part of Packt Publishing‘s Instant book series. Packt’s Instant book series promises short, fast, and focused information; Hudik’s book delivers. It’s eighty pages deliver hundreds of pages worth of the author’s knowledge in a highly-condensed format, perfect for today’s multi-tasking technical professionals.

Hudik’s book is ideal for anyone experienced with the Oracle Database 11g platform, and interested in leveraging Microsoft’s PowerShell scripting technology to automate their day-to-day database tasks. Even a seasoned developer, experienced in both technologies, will gain from the author’s insight on overcoming several PowerShell and .NET framework related integration intricacies.

As a busy developer, I was able to immediately start implementing many of the book’s recipes to improve my productivity. I especially enjoyed the way the book builds upon previous lessons, resulting in a useful collection of foundational PowerShell scripts and modules. Building on top of these, save time when automating a new task.

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Getting started with the book’s examples required a few free downloads from Oracle and Microsoft. Starting with a Windows 7 Enterprise laptop, I downloaded and installed Oracle Database 11g Express Edition (Oracle Database XE) Release 2,
Oracle Developer Tools for Visual Studio, and Oracle SQL Developer IDE. I also made sure my laptop was up-to-date with the latest Visual Studio 2012, .NET framework, and PowerShell updates.
If you are new to administering Oracle databases or using Oracle SQL Developer IDE, Oracle has some excellent interactive tutorials online to help you get started.

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