Archive for category Technology Consulting

The Evolving Role of DevOps in Emerging Technologies


Growth of DevOps

The adoption of DevOps practices by global organizations has become mainstream, according to many recent industry studies. For instance, a late 2016 study, conducted by IDG Research for Unisys Corporation of global enterprise organizations, found 38 percent of respondents had already adopted DevOps, while another 29 percent were in the planning phase, and 17 percent in the evaluation stage. Adoption rates were even higher, 49 percent versus 38 percent, for larger organizations with 500 or more developers.

Another recent 2017 study by Red Gate Software, The State of Database DevOps, based on 1,000 global organizations, found 47 percent of the respondents had already adopted DevOps practices, with another 33 percent planning on adopting DevOps practices within the next 24 months. Similar to the Unisys study, prior adoption rates were considerably higher, 59 percent versus 47 percent, for larger organizations with over 1,000 employees.

Emerging Technologies

Although DevOps originated to meet the needs of Agile software development to release more frequently, DevOps is no longer just continuous integration and continuous delivery. As more organizations undergo a digital transformation and adopt disruptive technologies to drive business success, the role of DevOps continues to evolve and expand.

Emerging technology trends, such as Machine Learning, Artificial Intelligence (AI), and Internet of Things (IoT/IIoT), serve to both influence DevOps practices, as well as create the need for the application of DevOps practices to these emerging technologies. Let’s examine the impact of some of these emerging technology trends on DevOps in this brief, two-part post.


Although mobile application development is certainly not new, DevOps practices around mobile continue to evolve as mobile becomes the primary application platform for many organizations. Mobile applications have unique development and operational requirements. Take for example UI functional testing. Whereas web application developers often test against a relatively small matrix of popular web browsers and operating systems (Desktop Browser Market Share – Net, mobile developers must test against a continuous outpouring of new mobile devices, both tablets and phones (Test on the right mobile devices – BroswerStack). The complexity of automating the testing of such a large number mobile devices has resulted in the growth of specialized cloud-based testing platforms, such as BrowserStack and SauceLabs.


Similar to Mobile, the Cloud is certainly not new. However, as more firms move their IT operations to the Cloud, DevOps practices have had to adapt rapidly. The need to adjust is no more apparent than with Amazon Web Services. Currently, AWS lists no less than 18 categories of cloud offerings on their website, with each category containing several products and services. Categories include compute, storage, databases, networking, security, messaging, mobile, AI, IoT, and analytics.

In addition to products like compute, storage, and database, AWS now offers development, DevOps, and management tools, such as AWS OpsWorks and AWS CloudFormation. These products offer alternatives to traditional non-cloud CI/CD/RM workflows for deploying and managing complex application platforms on AWS. Learning the nuances of a growing list of AWS specific products and workflows, while simultaneously adapting your organization’s DevOps practices to them, has resulted in a whole new category of DevOps engineering specialization centered around AWS. Cloud-centric DevOps engineering specialization is also seen with other large cloud providers, such as Microsoft Azure and Google Cloud Platform.


Call it DevSecOps, SecDevOps, SecOps, or Rugged DevOps, the intersection of DevOps and Security is bustling these days. As the complexity of modern application platforms grows, as well as the sophistication of threats from hackers and the requirements of government and industry compliance, security is no longer an afterthought or a process run in seeming isolation from software development and DevOps. In my recent experience, it is not uncommon to see IT security specialists actively participating on Agile development teams and embedded on DevOps and Platform teams.

Modern application platforms must be designed from day one to be bug-free, performant, compliant, and secure.

Security practices are now commonly part of the entire software development lifecycle, including enterprise architecture, software development, data governance, continuous testing, and infrastructure as code. Modern application platforms must be designed from day one to be bug-free, performant, compliant, and secure.

Take for example penetration (PEN) testing. Once a mostly manual process, done close to release time, evolving DevOps practices now allow testing for security vulnerabilities to applications and software-defined infrastructure to be done early and often in the software development lifecycle. Easily automatable and configurable cloud- and non-cloud-based tools like SonarQube, Veracode, QualysOWASP ZAP, and Chef Compliance, amongst others, are frequently incorporated into continuous integration workflows by development and DevOps teams. There is no longer an excuse for security vulnerabilities to be discovered just before release, or worse, in Production.

Modern Platforms

Along with the Cloud, modern application development trends, like the rise of the platform, microservices (or service-based architectures), containerization, NoSQL databases, and container orchestration, have likely provided the majority of fuel for the recent explosive growth of DevOps. Although innovative IT organizations have fostered these technologies for the past few years, their growth and relative maturity have risen sharply in the last 12 to 18 months.

No longer the stuff of Unicorns, platforms based on Evolutionary Architectures are being built and deployed by an increasing number of everyday organizations.

No longer the stuff of Unicorns, such as Amazon, Etsy, and Netflix, platforms based on Evolutionary Architectures are being built and deployed by an increasing number of everyday organizations. Although complexity continues to rise, the barrier to entry has been greatly reduced with technologies found across the SDLC, including  Node, Spring Boot, Docker, Consul, Terraform, and Kubernetes, amongst others.

As modern platforms become more commonplace, the DevOps practices around them continue to mature and become specialized. Imagine, with potentially hundreds of moving parts, building, testing, deploying, and actively managing a large-scale microservice-based application on a container orchestration platform requires highly-specialized knowledge. The ability to ‘do DevOps at scale’ is critical.

Legacy Systems

Legacy systems as an emerging technology trend in DevOps? As the race to build the ‘next generation’ of application platforms accelerates to meet the demands of the business and their customers, there is a growing need to support ‘last generation’ systems. Many IT organizations support multiple legacy systems, ranging in age from as short as five years old to more than 25 years old. These monolithic legacy systems, which often contain a company’s secret sauce, such as complex business algorithms and decision engines, are built on out-moded technology stacks, often lack vendor support, and require separate processes to build, test, deploy, and manage. Worse, the knowledge to maintain these systems is frequently only known to a shrinking group of IT resources. Who wants to work on the old system with so many bright and shiny toys being built?

As a cost-effective means to maintain these legacy systems, organizations are turning to modern DevOps practices. Although not possible to the same degree, depending on the legacy technology, practices include the use source control, various types of automated testing, automated provisioning, deployment and configuration of system components, and infrastructure automation (DevOps for legacy systems – Infosys white paper).

Not specifically a DevOps practice, organizations are also implementing content collaboration systems, like Atlassian Confluence and Microsoft SharePoint, to document legacy system architectures and manual processes, before the resources and their knowledge is lost.

To be Continued

In a future post, we will look additional emerging technologies and their impact on DevOps, including:

  • Big Data
  • Internet of Things (IoT/IIoT)
  • Artificial Intelligence (AI)
  • Machine Learning
  • COTS/SaaS

All opinions in this post are my own and not necessarily the views of my current employer or their clients.


Illustration Copyright: Andreus / 123RF Stock Photo

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Preparing for Your Organization’s DevOps Journey

19672001 - man looking at pencil with eraser erases maze

Copyright: peshkova / 123RF Stock Photo


Recently, I was asked two questions regarding DevOps. The first, ‘How do you get started implementing DevOps in an organization?’ A question I get asked, and answer, fairly frequently. The second was a bit more challenging to answer, ‘How do you prepare your organization to implement DevOps?

Getting Started

The first question, ‘How do you get started implementing DevOps in an organization?’, is a popular question many companies ask. The answer varies depending on who you ask, but the process is fairly well practiced and documented by a number of well-known and respected industry pundits. A successful DevOps implementation is a combination of strategic planning and effective execution.

A successful DevOps implementation is a combination of strategic planning and effective execution.

Most commonly, an organization starts with some form of a DevOps maturity assessment. The concept of a DevOps maturity model was introduced by Jez Humble and David Farley, in their ground-breaking book, Continuous Delivery: Reliable Software Releases through Build, Test, and Deployment Automation (Addison-Wesley Signature Series), circa 2011.

Humble and Farley presented their ‘Maturity Model for Configuration and Release Management’ (page 419). This model, which encompassed much more than just CM and RM, was created as a means of evaluating and improving an organization’s DevOps practices.

Although there are several variations, maturity models ordinarily all provide some means of ranking the relative maturity of an organization’s DevOps practices. Less sophisticated models focus primarily on tooling and processes. More holistic models, such as Accenture’s DevOps Maturity Assessment, focus on tooling, processes, people and culture.

Following the analysis, most industry experts recommend a strategic plan, followed an implementation plan. The plans set milestones for reaching higher levels of maturity, according to the model. Experts will identify key performance indicators, such as release frequency, defect rates, production downtime, and mean time to recovery from failures, which are often used to measure DevOps success.

Preparing for the Journey

As I said, the second question, ‘How do you prepare your organization to implement DevOps?’, is a bit more challenging to answer. And, as any good consultant would respond, it depends.

The exact answer depends on many factors. How engaged is management in wanting to transform their organization? How mature is the organization’s current IT practices? Are the other parts of the organization, such as sales, marketing, training, product documentation, and customer support, aligned with IT? Is IT aligned with them?

Even the basics matter, such as the organization’s size, both physical and financial, as well as the age of the organization? The industry? Are they in a highly regulated industry? Are they a global organization with distributed IT resources? Have they tried DevOps before and failed? Why did they fail?

As overwhelming as those questions might seem, I managed to break down my answer to the question, “How do you prepare your organization to implement DevOps?”, into five key areas. In my experience, each of these is critical for any DevOps transformation to succeed. Before the journey starts, these are five areas an organization needs to consider:

  1. Have an Agile Mindset
  2. Breakdown Silos
  3. Know Your Business
  4. Take the Long View
  5. Be Introspective

Have an Agile Mindset

It is commonly accepted that DevOps was born from the need of Agile software development to increase the frequency of releases. More releases required faster feedback loops, better quality control methods, and the increased use of automation, amongst other necessities. DevOps practices evolved to meet those challenges.

If an organization is considering DevOps, it should have already successfully embraced Agile, or be well along in their Agile transformation. An outgrowth of Agile software development, DevOps follow many Agile practices. Such Agile practices as cross-team collaboration, continuous and rapid feedback loops, continuous improvement, test-driven development, continuous integration, scheduling work in sprints, and breaking down business requirements into epics, stories, and tasks, are usually all part of a successful DevOps implementation.

If your organization cannot adopt Agile, it will likely fail to successfully embrace DevOps. Imagine a typical scenario in which DevOps enables an organization to release more frequently — monthly instead of quarterly, weekly instead of monthly. However, if the rest of the organization — sales, marketing, training, product documentation, and customer support, is still working in a non-Agile manner, they will not be able to match the improved cycle time DevOps would provide.

Breakdown Silos

Closely associated with an Agile mindset, is breaking down departmental silos. If your organization has already made an Agile transformation, then one should assume those ‘silos’, the physical or more often process-induced ‘walls’ between departments, have been torn down. Having embraced Agile, we assume that Development and Testing are working side-by-side as part of an Agile software development team.

Implementing DevOps requires closing the often wide gap between Development and Operations. If your organization cannot tear down the typically shorter wall between Development and Testing, then tearing down the larger walls between Development and Operations will be impossible.

Know Your Business

Before starting your DevOps journey, an organization needs to know thyself. Most organizations establish business metrics, such as sales quotas, profit targets, employee retention objectives, and client acquisition goals. However, many organizations have not formalized their IT-related Key Performance Indicators (KPIs) or Service Level Agreements (SLAs).

DevOps is all about measurements — application response time, incident volume, severity, and impact, defect density, Mean Time To Recovery (MTTR), downtime, uptime, and so forth. Established meaningful and measurable metrics is one of the best ways to evaluate the continuous improvements achieved by a maturing DevOps practice.

To successfully implement DevOps, an organization should first identify its business critical performance metrics and service level expectations. Additionally, an organization must accurately and honestly measure itself against those metrics, before beginning the DevOps journey.

Take the Long View

Rome was not built in a day, organizations don’t transform overnight, and DevOps is a journey, not a time-boxed task in a team’s backlog. Before an organization sets out on their journey, they must be willing to take the long view on DevOps. There is a reason DevOps maturity models exist. Like most engineering practices, cultural and organizational transformation, and skill-building exercise, DevOps takes the time to become successfully entrenched in a company.

Rome was not built in a day, organizations don’t transform overnight, and DevOps is a journey, not a time-boxed task in a team’s backlog.

Organizations need to value quick, small wins, followed by more small wins. They should not expect a big bang with DevOps. Achieving high levels DevOps performance is similar to the Agile practice of delivering small pieces of valuable functionality, in an incremental fashion.

Getting the ‘Hello World’ application successfully through a simple continuous integration pipeline might seem small, but think of all the barriers that were overcome to achieve that task — source control, continuous integration server, unit testing, artifact repository, and so on. Your next win, deploy that ‘Hello World’ application to your Test environment, automatically, through a continuous deployment pipeline…

This practice reminds me of an adage. Would you prefer a dollar, every day for the next week, or seven dollars at the end of the week? Most people prefer the immediacy of a dollar each day (small wins), as well as the satisfaction of seeing the value build consistently, day after day. Exercise the same philosophy with DevOps.

Be Introspective

As stated earlier, generally, the first step in creating a strategic plan for implementing DevOps is analyzing your organization’s current level of IT maturity. Individual departments must be willing to be open, honest, and objective when assessing their current state.

The inability of organizations to be transparent about their practices, challenges, and performance, is a sign of an unhealthy corporate culture. Not only is an accurate perspective critical for a maturity analysis and strategic planning, but the existence of an unhealthy culture can also be fatal to most DevOps transformation. DevOps only thrives in an open, collaborative, and supportive culture.


As Alexander Graham Bell once famously said, ‘before anything else, preparation is the key to success.’ Although not a guarantee, properly preparing for a DevOps transformation by addressing these five key areas, should greatly improve an organization’s chances of success.

All opinions in this post are my own and not necessarily the views of my current employer or their clients.

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Effective DevOps Technical Analysis



Building a successful DevOps team is a significant challenge. Building a successful Agile DevOps team can be an enormous challenge. Most junior Software Developers have experience working on Agile teams, often starting in college. On the contrary, most Operations Engineers, System Administrators, and Security Specialists have not participated on an Agile team. They frequently cut their teeth in highly reactive, support ticket-driven environments. Agile methodologiesceremonies, and coding practices, often seem strange and awkward to traditional operation resources.

Adding to the challenge, most DevOps teams are expected to execute on a broad range of requirements. DevOps user stories span the software development, release, and support. DevOps team backlogs often include a diverse assortment of epics, including logging, monitoring, alerting, infrastructure provisioning, networking, security, continuous integration and deployment, and support.

Worst yet, many DevOps teams don’t apply the same rigor to developing high-quality user stories and acceptance criteria for DevOps-related requirements, as they do for software application requirements. On teams where DevOps Engineers are integrated with Software Developers, I find the lack of rigor is often due to a lack of understanding of typical DevOps requirements. On stand-alone DevOps teams, I find engineers often believe their stories don’t need the same attention to details, as their software development peers.

Successful Teams

I’ve been lucky enough to be part of several successful DevOps teams, both integrated and stand-alone. The teams were a mix of engineers from both software development, system administration, security, support, and operations backgrounds. One of the many reasons these teams were effective, was the presence of a Technical Analyst. The Technical Analyst role falls somewhere in between an Agile Business Analyst and a traditional Systems Analyst, probably closer to the latter on a DevOps team. The Technical Analyst ensures that user stories are Ready for Development, by meeting the Definition of Ready.

There is a common misperception that the Technical Analyst on a DevOps team must be the senior technologist. DevOps is a very broad and quickly evolving discipline. While a good understanding of Agile practices, CI/CD, and modern software development is beneficial, I’ve found organizational and investigative skills to be most advantageous to the Technical Analyst.

In this post, we will explore how to optimize the effectiveness of a Technical Analyst, through the use of a consistent approach to functional requirement analysis and story development. Uniformity improves the overall quality and consistency of user stories and acceptance criteria, maximizing business value and minimizing resource utilization.

Inadequate Requirements

Let’s start with a typical greenfield requirement, frequently assigned to DevOps teams, centralized logging.

Centralized Application Logging

User Story
As a Software Developer,
I need to view application logs,
So that I can monitor and troubleshoot running applications.

Acceptance Criterion 1
I can view the latest logs from multiple applications.

Acceptance Criterion 2
I can view application logs without having to log directly into each host on which the applications are running.

Acceptance Criterion 3
I can view the log entries in exact chronological order, based on timestamps.

Technical Background Information
Currently, Software Developers log directly into host machines, using elevated credentials, to review running application logs. This is a high-risk practice, which often results in an increase in high-severity support tickets. This is also a huge security concern. Sensitive data could potentially be accessed from the host, using the elevated credentials.

I know some DevOps Engineers that would willingly pick up this user story, make a handful of assumptions based on previous experiences, and manage to hack out a centralized application logging system. The ability to meet the end user’s expectations would clearly not be based on the vague and incomplete user story, acceptance criteria, and technical background details. Any centralized logging solution would be mostly based on the personal knowledge (and luck!) of the engineer.

Multi-Faceted Analysis

Consistently delivering well-defined user stories and comprehensive acceptance criteria, which provide maximum business value with minimal resource utilization, requires a systematic analytical approach.

Based on my experience, I have found certain aspects of the software development, delivery, and support lifecycles, affect or are affected by DevOps-related functional requirements. Every requirement should be consistently analyzed against these facets to improve the overall quality of user stories and acceptance criteria.

For simplicity, I prefer to organize these aspects into five broad categories: Technology, Infrastructure, Delivery, Support, and Organizational. In no particular order, these facets, include:

  • Technology
    • Technology Preferences
    • Architectural Approval
    • Technical Debt
    • Configuration and Feature Management
  • Infrastructure
    • Infrastructure
    • Life Expectancy
    • Backup and Recovery
    • Data Management
    • Computer Networking
    • High Availability and Fault Tolerance
  • Delivery
    • Environment Management
    • Continuous Integration and Delivery
    • Release Management
  • Support
    • Service Level Agreements (SLAs)
    • Monitoring
    • Alerting
    • Logging
    • Support
    • Maintenance
    • Service Level Agreements (SLAs)
    • Training and Documentation
  • Organizational
    • Ownership
    • Cost
    • Licensing and Legal
    • Security and Compliance

Requirement Impacts

Let’s take a closer look at each aspect, and how they could impact DevOps requirements.


Do the requirements introduce changes, which would or should produce logs? How should those logs be handled? Do those changes impact existing logging processes and systems?


Do the requirements introduce changes, which would or should be monitored? Do those changes impact existing monitoring processes and systems?


Do the requirements introduce changes, which would or should produce alerts? Do the requirements introduce changes, which impact existing alerting processes and systems?


Do the requirements introduce changes, which require an owner? Do those changes impact existing ownership models? An example of this might be regarding who owns the support and maintenance of new infrastructure.


Do the requirements introduce changes, which would or should require internal, external, or vendor support? Do those changes impact existing support models? For example, adding new service categories to a support ticketing system, like ServiceNow.


Do the requirements introduce changes, which would or should require regular and on-going maintenance? Do those changes impact existing maintenance processes and schedules? An example of maintenance might be regarding how upgrading and patching would be completed for a new monitoring system.

Backup and Recovery

Do the requirements introduce changes, which would or should require backup and recovery? Do the requirements introduce changes, which impact existing backup and recovery processes and systems?

Security and Compliance

Do the requirements introduce changes, which have security and compliance implications? Do those changes impact existing security and compliance requirements, processes, and systems? Compliance in IT frequently includes Regulatory Compliance with HIPAA, Sarbanes-Oxley, and PCI-DSS. Security and Compliance is closely associated with Licensing and Legal.

Continuous Integration and Delivery

Do the requirements introduce changes, which require continuous integration and delivery of application or infrastructure code? Do those changes impact existing continuous integration and delivery processes and systems?

Service Level Agreements (SLAs)

Do the requirements introduce changes, which are or should be covered by Service Level Agreements (SLA)? Do the requirements introduce changes, which impact existing SLAs Often, these requirements are system performance- or support-related, centered around Mean Time Between Failures (MTBF), Mean Time to Repair, and Mean Time to Recovery (MTTR).

Configuration Management

Do the requirements introduce changes, which requires the management of new configuration or multiple configurations? Do those changes affect existing configuration or configuration management processes and systems? Configuration management also includes feature management (aka feature switches). Will the changes turned on or turned off for testing and release? Configuration Management is closely associated with Environment Managment and Release Management.

Environment Management

Do the requirements introduce changes, which affect existing software environments or require new software environments? Do those changes affect existing environments? Software environments typically include Development, Test, Performance, Staging, and Production.

High Availability and Fault Tolerance

Do the requirements introduce changes, which require high availability and fault tolerant configurations? Do those changes affect existing highly available and fault-tolerant systems?

Release Management

Do the requirements introduce changes, which require releases to the Production or other client-facing environments? Do those changes impact existing release management processes and systems?

Life Expectancy

Do the requirements introduce changes, which have a defined lifespan? For example, will the changes be part a temporary fix, a POC, an MVP, pilot, or a permanent solution? Do those changes impact the lifecycles of existing processes and systems? For example, do the changes replace an existing system?

Architectural Approval

Do the requirements introduce changes, which require the approval of the Client, Architectural Review Board (ARB), Change Approval Board (CAB), or other governing bodies? Do the requirements introduce changes, which impact other existing or pending technology choices? Architectural Approval is closely related to Technology Preferences, below. Often an ARB or similar governing body will regulate technology choices.

Technology Preferences

Do the requirements introduce changes, which might be impacted by existing preferred vendor relationships or previously approved technologies? Are the requirements impacted by blocked technology, including countries or companies blacklisted by the Government, such as the Specially Designated Nationals List (SDN) or Consolidated Sanctions List (CSL)? Does the client approve of the use of Open Source technologies? What is the impact of those technology choices on other facets, such as Licensing and Legal, Cost, and Support? Do those changes impact other existing or pending technology choices?


Do the requirements introduce changes, which would or should impact infrastructure? Is the infrastructure new or existing, is it physical, is it virtualized, is it in the cloud? If the infrastructure is virtualized, are there coding requirements about how it is provisioned? If the infrastructure is physical, how will it impact other aspects, such as Technology Preferences, Cost, Support, Monitoring, and so forth? Do the requirements introduce changes, which impact existing infrastructure?

Data Management

Do the requirements introduce changes, which produce data or require the preservation of state? Do those changes impact existing data management processes and systems? Is the data ephemeral or transient? How is the data persisted? Is the data stored in a SQL database, NoSQL database, distributed key-value store, or flat-file? Consider how other aspects, such as Security and Compliance, Technology Preferences, and Architectural Approval, impact or are impacted by the various aspects of Data?

Training and Documentation

Do the requirements introduce changes, which require new training and documentation? This also includes architectural diagrams and other visuals. Do the requirements introduce changes, which impact training and documentation processes and practices?

Computer Networking

Do the requirements introduce changes, which require networking additions or modifications? Do those changes impact existing networking processes and systems? I have separated out Computer Networking from Infrastructure since networking is itself, so broad, involving such things as DNS, SDN, VPN, SSL, certificates, load balancing, proxies, firewalls, and so forth. Again, how do networking choices impact other aspects, like Security and Compliance?

Licensing and Legal

Do the requirements introduce changes, which requires licensing? Should or would the requirements require additional legal review? Are there contractual agreements that need authorization? Do the requirements introduce changes, which impact licensing or other legal agreements or contracts?


Do the requirements introduce changes, which requires the purchase of equipment, contracts, outside resources, or other goods which incur a cost? How and where will the funding come from to purchase those items? Are there licensing or other legal agreements and contracts required as part of the purchase? Who approves these purchases? Are they within acceptable budgetary expectations? Do those changes impact existing costs or budgets?

Technical Debt

Do the requirements introduce changes, which incur technical debt? What is the cost of that debt? How will impact other requirements and timelines? Do the requirements eliminate existing technical debt? Do those changes impact existing or future technical debt caused by other processes and systems?


Depending on your organization, industry, and DevOps maturity, you may prefer different aspects critical to your requirements.

Closer Analysis

Let’s take a second look at our centralized logging story, applying what we’ve learned. For each facet, we will ask the following three questions.

Is there any aspect of _______ that impacts the centralized logging requirement(s)?
Will the centralized logging requirement(s) impact any aspect of _______?
If yes, will the impacts be captured as part of this user story, an additional user story, or elsewhere?

For the sake of brevity, we will only look at the half the aspects.


Although the requirement is about centralized logging, there is still analysis that should occur around Logging. For example, we should determine if there is a requirement that the centralized logging application should consume its own logs for easier supportability. If so, we should add an acceptance criterion to the original user story around the logging application’s logs being captured.


If we are building a centralized application logging system, we will assume there will be a centralized logging application, possibly a database, and infrastructure on which the application is running. Therefore, it is reasonable to also assume that the logging application, database, and infrastructure need to be monitored. This would require interfacing with an existing monitoring system, or by creating a new monitoring system. If and how the system will be monitored needs to be clarified.

Interfacing with a current monitoring system will minimally require additional acceptance criteria. Developing a new monitoring system would undoubtedly require additional user story or stories, with their own acceptance criteria.


If we are monitoring the system, then we could assume that there should be a requirement to alert someone if monitoring finds the centralized application logging system becomes impaired. Similar to monitoring, this would require interfacing with an existing alerting system or creating a new alerting system. A bigger question, who do the alerts go to? These details should be clarified first.

Interfacing with an existing alerting system will minimally require additional acceptance criteria. Developing a new alerting system would require additional user story or stories, with their own acceptance criteria.


Who will own the new centralized application logging system? Ownership impacts many aspects, such as Support, Maintenance, and Alerting. Ownership should be clearly defined, before the requirements stories are played. Don’t build something that does not have an owner, it will fail as soon as it is launched.

No additional user stories or acceptance criteria should be required.


We will assume that there are no Support requirements, other than what is already covered in Monitoring, Ownership, and Training and Documentation.


Similarly, we will assume that there are no Maintenance requirements, other than what is already covered in Ownership and Training and Documentation. Requirements regarding automating system maintenance in any way should be an additional user story or stories, with their own acceptance criteria.

Backup and Recovery

Similar to both Support and Maintenance, Backup and Recovery should have a clear owner. Regardless of the owner, integrating backup into the centralized application logging system should be addressed as part of the requirement. To create a critical support system such as logging, with no means of backup or recovery of the system or the data, is unwise.

Backup and Recovery should be an additional user story or stories, with their own acceptance criteria.

Security and Compliance

Since we are logging application activity, we should assume there is the potential of personally identifiable information (PII) and other sensitive business data being captured. Due to the security and compliance risks associated with improper handling of PII, there should be clear details in the logging requirement regarding such things as system access.

At a minimum, there are usually requirements for a centralized application logging system to implement some form of user, role, application, and environment-level authorization for viewing logs. Security and Compliance should be an additional user story or stories, with their own acceptance criteria. Any requirements around the obfuscation of sensitive data in the log entries would also be an entirely separate set of business requirements.

Continuous Integration and Delivery

We will assume that there are no Continuous Integration and Delivery requirements around logging. Any requirements to push the logs of existing Continuous Integration and Delivery systems to the new centralized application logging system would be a separate use story.

Service Level Agreements (SLAs)

A critical aspect of most DevOps user stories, which is commonly overlooked, Service Level Agreements. Most requirements should at least a minimal set of performance-related metrics associated with them. Defining SLAs also help to refine the scope of a requirement. For example, what is the anticipated average volume of log entries to be aggregated and over what time period? From how many sources will logs be aggregated? What is the anticipated average size of each log entry, 2 KB or 2 MB? What is the anticipated average volume of concurrent of system users?

Given these base assumptions, how quickly are new log entries expected to be available in the new centralized application logging system? What is the expected overall response time of the system under average load?

Directly applicable SLAs should be documented as acceptance criteria in the original user story, and the remaining SLAs assigned to the other new user stories.

Configuration Management

We will also assume that there no Configuration Management requirements around the new centralized application logging system. However, if the requirements prescribed standing up separately logging implementations, possibly to support multiple environments or applications, then Configuration Management would certainly be in scope.

Environment Management

Based on further clarification, we will assume we are only creating a single centralized application logging system instance. However, we still need to learn which application environments need to be captured by that system. Is this application only intended to support the Development and Test environments? Are the higher environments of Staging and Production precluded due to PII?

We should add an explicit acceptance criterion to the original user story around which application environments should be included and which should not.

High Availability and Fault Tolerance

The logging requirement should state whether or not this system is considered business critical. Usually, if a system is considered critical to the business, then we should assume the system requires monitoring, alerting, support, and backup. Additionally, the system should be highly available and fault tolerant.

Making the system highly available would surely have an impact on facets like Infrastructure, Monitoring, and Alerting. High Availability and Fault Tolerance could be a separate user story or stories, with its own acceptance criteria, as long as the original requirement doesn’t dictate those features.

Other Aspects

We skipped half the facets. They would certainly expand our story list and acceptance criteria. We didn’t address how the end user would view the logs. Should we assume a web browser? Which web browsers? We didn’t determine if the system should be accessible outside the internal network. We didn’t determine how the system would be configured and deployed. We didn’t investigate if there are any vendor or licensing restrictions, or if there are any required training and documentation needs. Possibly, we will need Architectural Approval before we start to develop.

Analysis Results

Based on our brief, partial analysis, we uncovered some further needs.

Further Clarification

We need additional information and clarification regarding Logging, Monitoring, Alerting, and Security and Compliance. We should also determine ownership of the resulting centralized application logging system, before it is built, to ensure Alerting, Maintenance, and Support, are covered.

Additional Acceptance Criteria

We need to add additional acceptance criteria to the original user story around SLAs, Security and Compliance, Logging, Monitoring, and Environment Management.I prefer to write acceptance criteria in the

I prefer to write acceptance criteria in the Given-When-Then format. I find the ‘Given-When-Then’ format tends to drive a greater level of story refinement and detail than the ‘I’ format. For example, compare:

I expect to see the most current log entries with no more than a two-minute time delay.


Given the centralized application logging system is operating normally and under average expected load,
When I view log entries for running applications, from my web browser, 
Then I should see the most current log entries with no more than a two-minute time delay.

New User Stories

Following Agile best practices, illustrated by the INVEST mnemonic, we need to add new, quality user stories, with their own acceptance criteria, around Monitoring, Alerting, Backup and Recovery, Security and Compliance, and High Availability and Fault Tolerance.


In this post, we have shown how uniformly analyzing the impacts of the above aspects on the requirements will improve the overall quality and consistency of user stories and acceptance criteria, maximizing business value and minimizing resource utilization.

All opinions in this post are my own and not necessarily the views of my current employer or their clients.

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